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Investigating the effect of exercise on heart rate.

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Introduction

Investigating the effect of exercise on heart rate Planning The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump; left and right atrium and left and right ventricles. The heart contains veins and arteries. The arteries are thick walled muscular tubes, which carry blood away from the heart. The artery leading from the heart to the lung, the pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries de-oxygenated blood. Veins are thin walled tubes, which carry blood back to the heart; they have a large diameter and valves. The veins returning blood from all of the body minus the lungs are called the venae cavae; the vein from the lungs is called the pulmonary vein and is the only vein to carry oxygenated blood. Heart rate is the measuring of the number of times the heart beats per minute. During exercise the heart rate increases to pump more blood to the muscles all over the body, which need to work harder. The amount of blood that the heart pumps out to the body, the cardiac output, increases. The heart rate and the cardiac output are proportional to each other. The heart has to supply more oxygen to the muscles when you take exercise so it has to beat faster. If a person is not fit, even though their heart beats faster they still do not get enough oxygen to their muscles and so they build up an oxygen debt. This causes their muscles to respire anaerobically and make lactic acid. ...read more.

Middle

When the exercise is complete I think that the heart rate will gradually decrease back to the resting pulse rate Obtaining Evidence I carried out my set of exercises twice to ensure an accurate set of results. First set of results Exercise Heart Rate At Rest Heart Rate after 2 minutes Increase Step-ups 76bpm 120bpm 44bpm Star Jumps 74bpm 129bpm 55bpm Skipping 79bpm 137bpm 58bpm Jogging 76bpm 142bpm 66bpm Second set of results Exercise Heart Rate At Rest Heart Rate after 2 minutes Increase Step-ups 74bpm 122bpm 48bpm Star Jumps 72bpm 126bpm 54bpm Skipping 73bpm 134bpm 61bpm Jogging 73bpm 144bpm 71bpm Results (Taken from average) Exercise Heart Rate At Rest Heart Rate after 2 minutes Increase Step-ups 75bpm 121bpm 46bpm Star Jumps 73bpm 128bpm 55bpm Skipping 76bpm 136bpm 60bpm Jogging 75bpm 143bpm 68bpm As I needed to record all of my results on the same day to ensure that they were as accurate as possible and my testing was fair I did not have time to repeat my exercises a third time, if I had been able to do this then my results may have made my average results more accurate. For the sake of my graph I have decided to show the increase in heart rate by using the average heart rate at rest, which was 74bpm. Analysing and concluding My graph shows the type of exercises against the heart rate after 2 minutes of carrying out each exercise. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also not all of the equipment used will be the same each time for example the height of the step-ups and length of the skipping rope, reliability is lost if not everything matches. There are several improvements that could be made to increase the reliability of this investigation. To begin with another person could be with the subject to take down recordings and check the heart rate of the person doing the exercises. Each exercise could be carried out under controlled conditions where light and heat are kept the same to avoid these factors affecting heart rate. Specific measurements for the height of the step-ups and length of the skipping rope so that all equipment used is exactly the same each time and everything matches. Another thing would be to make sure the heart rate was exactly the same at rest before the next exercise was begun as this significantly changes the amount that the heart rate increases. The major thing that affects the reliability of this experiment is that it has to be done by an individual and no two people would ever get exactly the same results, as there are many factors that affect heart rate, which I have listed above. There is nothing that could be done to improve this as the investigation has to be conducted by a human being. However the title could be made more specific so that results could be compared, for example 'Investigate the effects of exercise on the heart rate on two different individuals' Biology Coursework 3/11/03 Lauren Skeldon 1 ...read more.

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