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Investigating the factors that affect the rates of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Chemistry investigation Rates of reaction Investigating the factors that affect the rates of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid Key variables Temperature Concentration of acid Surface area of magnesium Use of a suitable catalyst Strength of acid Mass of magnesium Stirring solutions Volume of acid I have chosen to investigate the concentration of acid Prediction I predict that there will be more hydrogen produced in the same amount of time when the concentration of the acid is greater. I predict that the concentration of the hydrochloric acid will be directly proportional to the rate of reaction. Therefore, as the concentration doubles the rate of reaction will double. So twice the hydrochloric acid used, twice hydrogen will be produced in the same amount of time as using less hydrochloric acid. The gas produced will be hydrogen. Justification of prediction The rate of reaction will double because as the concentration increases there will be more mols per litre. Using the collision theory, as the concentration increases there are more reactant particles in the water to collide with the magnesium. This increases the chance of collisions so there will be more collisions, and hence greater chance of successful collisions. This means that the reaction will be faster if there are more collisions. If there is twice the amount of particles to collide then number of collisions will double, thus doubling the chance of successful collisions. There will be twice as many particles to collide with the Mg particles. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen HCL + Mg MgCL + H+ions 2HC L+ Mg 2MgCL + 2H Therefore, in the same amount of time twice the amount of hydrogen is produced. Acids produce hydrogen + ions in solution The collision theory Chemical reactions can only occur when reacting particles collide with each other and with sufficient energy. The minimum amount of energy particles need to react is the activation energy. ...read more.

Middle

I will use the same method as in the preliminary experiment, timing the reaction every 5 seconds. I will change the concentration by adding water to the HCL as shown in the table below. Range of measurements I will use concentrations of HCL from 0.8 to 1.6. These are the changes I will make to the concentration. These are the changes I will make to the concentration. Volume of acid (cm3) Volume of water (cm3) Concentration of HCL m/l 40 10 1.6 35 15 1.4 30 20 1.2 25 25 1 20 30 0.8 Results All of the experiments started with the hydrogen at 0cm3. Volume of hydrogen produced (cm3) Concentration of acid Time (s) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 5 18 10 6 9 0 10 22 20 15 13 3 15 34 30 22 16 6 20 45 35 29 21 9 25 51 45 39 25 11 30 51 50 44 29 13 35 51 51 48 33 16 40 51 51 51 37 18 45 51 51 42 20.5 50 51 45 23 55 51 50 25 60 51 51 29 65 51 30 70 51 31 75 51 34 80 51 39 85 53 41 90 43 95 44 100 45 105 47 110 47 These are my second set of results: Again, all of the experiments started with the hydrogen at 0cm3. Volume of hydrogen produced (mm3) Concentration of acid Time (s) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 5 17 11 5 3.5 2 10 33 21 7 6 4 15 44 33 15 7 6 20 45 42 22 15 8 25 45 44 27 17 10 30 46 46 36 20 12 35 46 48 45 23 14 40 46 49 46 31.5 16 45 49 50 35 18 50 50 39 20.5 55 50 40 22 60 44 24 65 46 26 70 48 29 75 48 31 80 48 32 85 48 34 90 49 36 95 39 100 40 105 41 110 42 115 ...read more.

Conclusion

Reliability of measurements I think that my results were reliable because I got repeats and from my results I can tell that this helped. I did get some anomalous results but because I got averages they were evened out. From my repeats I could see what the results should have been if I did get an anomalous result. I conducted a fair test and also took into account the need for accuracy. For example I looked at the point of graduation of the meniscus and I measured everything to the nearest millimetre. Suitability of procedure I think that my procedure was suitable although it could have been improved. When I put the Mg into the flask I couldn't start the stopwatch quick enough. This meant that the reaction stated just before my experiment started so I could have got inaccurate results but if I did this every time then all of the experiments were all affected and not just some of them. It is, however unlikely that I spent the same amount of milliseconds putting the bung in and starting the stopwatch. I could have asked someone to start it for me. This was the only fault I could find. Sufficient evidence I think that I could have got more evidence by conducting more experiments because I would have liked to use more concentrations, thus getting more result and more to compare and analyse. I don't think that I did get quite enough because I am not entirely happy with my results as they did not fit my prediction, although I know that this is not essential. I concluded that the rate to reaction was not directly proportional to the concentration but I am not entirely convinced. I didn't get many chances to prove this. Improvements and further work I could do more experiments, e.g. more concentrations, or I could even change the experiment by using a different acid or metal to see if anything changes or if I get better results. William Headlam-Wells Chemistry investigation February 2001 ...read more.

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