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Investigating the factors which effect the rate of a chemical reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introductory Information... During a chemical reaction the chemicals will only occur when reacting particles collide with each other with sufficient energy to react. These reactions can proceed at different speeds... * Rusting is a slow reaction. * Burning is a fast reaction. There are four important factors which affect the rate of reaction. * Temperature * Surface Area * Concentration * A Catalyst This reaction I will be investigating will illustrate how long each reaction takes place for with the different amounts of Hydrochloric acid, Sodium Thiosulphate and water. In this I will be able to see which results were faster and slower by the time in which the chemical reaction would finish. I will put a tile down marked with a black cross with my experiment on top. Sodium thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid --> Sodium chloride + Sulphur dioxide + Water. I will observe whether the reaction will change colour to a cloudy solution. When the reaction has taken place, Sulphur is produced. This makes the solution opaque. I could decide whether the reaction has stopped by making sure I cannot see the marked cross on the tile. The problems which could be with this method are that I may not have noticed whether the reaction had finished earlier or later, so the times would be different. I could ensure that my methods are accurate as possible by making sure that I can't see the cross at all... ...read more.

Middle

Supporting Information;- I think that the higher the concentration the faster the reaction because when two successful collisions collide they become faster as the concentration increases. In this experimentation I will keep the concentration of Hydrochloric acid the same and alter the concentration of Sodium thiosulphate. If the concentration is doubled, the speed doubles. This is because the irons are closer together in a concentrated solution. The more often they collide, the more chance they have of reacting. Preliminary Work;- 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% Sodium Thiosulphate 10ml 8ml 6ml 4ml 2ml Water 0 2 4 6 8 Hydrochloric Acid 10ml 10ml 10ml 10ml 10ml Time 134s 206s 306s 424s 660s You do not want the speed of the reaction to be too slow or too fast otherwise the results may be inaccurate! I need to repeat my experiment to be accurate! Increasing the amount of Thiosulphate will give the solution a much greater depth... Plan;- During this experiment I will need; * White Tile with black cross- As my guideline, so I can see the black cross as the beaker is on it. * Beaker- To mix all of the chemicals around. * Sodium Thiosulphate- Chemical I will be using. * Hydrochloric acid- Chemical I will be using. * Water- I will be using in the solution. * Stop clock- To start and stop the clock when the reaction starts and finishes. ...read more.

Conclusion

Results;- Volume Sodium Thiosulphate Volume Water Volume Hydrochloric Acid % Concentration Time 1 (secs) Time 2 (secs) Time 3 (secs) Time 4 (secs) Time 5 (secs) Average Time in secs 10 cm3 0cm3 10cm3 100% 100s 96s 92s 98s 105s 98.2 s 8cm3 2cm3 10cm3 80% 127s 125s 108s 107s 150s 123.4 s 6cm3 4cm3 10cm3 60% 185s 201s 185s 175s 229s 195 s 4cm3 6cm3 10cm3 40% 312s 405s 310s 366s 332s 345 s To make sure that my results were as precise as possible I made sure that during the experiment I had started and stopped the stop clock at exactly the right time. Making sure I had the right amount of measurements for the hydrochloric acid, water and sodium thiosulphate I have faith in my results as I have done the experiment more than three times giving my average results as close as I could. Average Results The graph shows me that the Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate is Inversely Proportional to the rate of reaction. If the acid concentration is doubled, the speed doubles. This is because the irons are closer together in a concentrated solution. The closer together they are, the more often the irons collide. The more often they collide, the more chance they have of reacting. Analysis and Conclusion;- % Concentration Average time (seconds) 1/ Average time/ x 1000 /(s-1) 100% 98.2s 10.18 80% 123.4s 8.10 60% 195s 5.12 40% 345s 2.89 The graph shows me that the rate of reaction is proportional to the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate, 1/time x concentration. Speed of reaction x concentration. ...read more.

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