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Investigating the rate Of reaction between Acid and marble

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Variables Independent variables Dependant variables Concentration of acid Rate of reaction Volume of acid Yield Temperature of acid Surface area of marble (size) Amount of marble I have identified as important variables in this experiment. An independent variable is an input variable which means it is something that will affect the outcome of the experiment. A dependant variable is an output variable, an outcome of the experiment. The dependant variable I am going to monitor is the 'rate of reaction'. Concentration of acid I am going to change the concentration of acid whilst the other variables will be kept constant throughout the experiment. As the concentration of acid increases so does the concentration of hydrogen ions, which then results in an increase in the rate of reaction. This is because an acid is a donor of hydrogen ions and the strength of an acid is a measure of it ability to 'release' hydrogen ions Temperature I need to control the temperature of the reactants this is due to several reasons. As heat is transferred to the particles, they gain energy as heat and convert it to kinetic energy which means that they will move much faster thus resulting in more collisions between the particles and an increased rate of reaction. The particles will react more frequently and are then more likely to react. The cooler the reactant is the less movement there is and it is then less likely that a reaction will take place quickly. Surface area of marbles Another variable which I will have to control is the surface area of the marble. The larger the surface area of the marble the more collisions there will be between the hydrogen ions, this will result in an increase in the rate of reaction. I have a choice of various sizes of marble that I can use, I can use large chips, small chips or powdered marble. ...read more.

Middle

136.46 0.06 136.20 0.05 3.30 135.70 0.06 136.45 0.07 136.19 0.06 4.00 135.69 0.07 136.47 0.08 136.19 0.06 4.30 135.69 0.07 136.44 0.08 136.18 0.07 5.00 135.68 0.08 136.43 0.09 136.18 0.07 0.25 Molar Nitric Acid <-------------------Weight/grams--------------------> Time/Minutes Set 1 Difference 1 Set 2 Difference 2 Set 3 Difference 3 0.00 139.09 0.00 140.08 0.00 140.31 0.00 0.30 139.09 0.00 140.07 0.01 140.30 0.01 1.00 139.08 0.01 140.07 0.01 140.30 0.01 1.30 139.07 0.02 140.06 0.02 140.29 0.02 2.00 139.06 0.03 140.06 0.02 140.29 0.02 2.30 139.06 0.03 140.06 0.02 140.29 0.02 3.00 139.06 0.03 140.05 0.03 140.29 0.02 3.30 139.06 0.03 140.04 0.04 140.29 0.02 4.00 139.06 0.03 140.02 0.06 140.28 0.03 4.30 139.06 0.03 140.04 0.04 140.28 0.03 5.00 139.06 0.03 140.05 0.03 140.26 0.05 Summary Table Average Weight Difference/ Grams Time/Minutes 2M 1.5M 1M 0.75M 0.5M 0.25M 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 1.00 0.22 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.30 0.29 0.09 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.02 2.00 0.32 0.13 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.02 2.30 0.34 0.16 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.02 3.00 0.38 0.18 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.03 3.30 0.42 0.20 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.03 4.00 0.43 0.23 0.16 0.12 0.07 0.04 4.30 0.45 0.25 0.18 0.13 0.07 0.03 5.00 0.47 0.26 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.04 Molar Total Weight/ Loss 2M 0.47 1.5M 0.26 1M 0.2 0.75M 0.15 0.5M 0.08 0.25M 0.04 Conclusions drawn from graph My first graph shows the results I plotted when comparing the average weight difference with time. The average weight difference was measured in grams and the time was measured in minutes. I got the results for the graph by working out the average weight differences from my results tables. I took the three weight differences, added them together and then divided them by three. An example is shown below. 0.19 + 0.16 + 0.13 = 0.48/3 = 0.14 The formula for this is as follows: a = difference 1 b = difference 2 c = difference 3 ...read more.

Conclusion

Surface area of marble Another aspect which again would need to be revised were I to carry this experiment out again is the surface area of the marble chips. I previously stated how the surface area can affect the accuracy of my results as none of the chips were identical; they were all different in shape and size, all irregular. When surface area changes it affects the amount of collisions taking place between the molecules and the rate of reaction. The marble chips which I used were irregular, I could fix this problem by using regular marble chips, for example they could be in the form of small cubes, tablets, spheres. Powdered marble is another solution as the surface area would always be the same. Extension of enquiry Extension of an enquiry is making our small experiment into a much larger one, by extending it I would make it more detailed and on a larger scale. Here are a few ways in which I could extend my enquiry. One way is to see if acid rain affects marble in the same way, this could relate to how acid rain wears away buildings. I would want to do this as an extension as it would attract a much greater audience as this is an issue that is recognised by many. Another way is to investigate in more detail different types of marble, I could do this by collecting marble which comes from different places around the world. I would do this to see how the results differ from the marble I have used already, this could show me the differences between marble which is found in this country and marble from other places in the world. Another extension which I could do is to experiment using all 3 acids which I had initially considered for my experiment. These three acids are nitric acid, sulphuric acid and carbonic acid. I could investigate the affects of different acid on the same marble, this could again attract a wider audience and make the experiment appealing to others. ...read more.

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