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Investigating the rate of reaction between Magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Investigating the rate of reaction between Magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid Aim: To investigate the rate of reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid. Introduction: The rate of reaction is not the measure of how long a reaction takes to complete; it is rather the measure of how fast the reaction is happening at any given time. It is the rate of reaction that I will be investigating in this experiment. The chemical reaction I intend to investigate is between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid. The formulae for this reaction are: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid --> Hydrogen + Magnesium Chloride Mg (s) + 2HCL (aq) --> H2 (g) + MgCl2 (aq) Factors/ Variables: The factors which could affect the rate of this reaction are: 1. temperature 2. concentration 3. particle size / surface area 4. presence of a catalyst 5. type of magnesium The factor I am going to alter is the concentration; all the rest will remain constants. Prediction: Altering my chosen variable will alter the rate of reaction. When there is a concentration, I believe that the rate of reaction will also be high; I predict this will happen because of my understanding of the collision theory. ...read more.

Middle

Safety: In order to keep the conditions for the experiment safe I will wear safety goggles and take care to immediately wipe up any spillages and follow general laboratory practical rules so as to limit the risk of potential injury. Results: Time (secs) Volume of H2 given off (cm3) Concentration of HCl (M) Length of Magnesium Ribbon Rate of reaction at 10sec intervals Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Average (cm) 0 0 0 0.0 1.0 4.0 0.00 10 5 8 6.5 1.0 4.0 0.65 20 13 14 13.5 1.0 4.0 0.70 30 21 19 20.0 1.0 4.0 0.65 40 28 28 28.0 1.0 4.0 0.80 50 35 33 34.0 1.0 4.0 0.60 60 41 38 39.5 1.0 4.0 0.55 70 42 41 41.5 1.0 4.0 0.20 80 42 42 42.0 1.0 4.0 0.05 90 42 44 43.0 1.0 4.0 0.10 Time (secs) Volume of H2 given off (cm3) Concentration of HCl (M) Length of Magnesium Ribbon Rate of reaction at 10sec intervals Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Average (cm) 0 0 0 0 0.8 4.0 0.00 10 3 5 4.0 0.8 4.0 0.40 20 7 11 9.0 0.8 4.0 0.50 30 12 17 14.5 0.8 4.0 0.55 40 15 21 18.0 0.8 4.0 0.36 50 19 25 22.0 0.8 4.0 0.40 60 24 30 27.0 0.8 4.0 ...read more.

Conclusion

The reason for this is because when the concentration is 1M of HCl there are 6 x 1023 atoms in 1000cm3 with which the magnesium ribbon particles can react; however, when the concentration decreases to 0.8 M there are only 4.8 x 1023 atoms in 1000cm3 with which the magnesium particles could collide, so therefore is stands to reason that with less atoms there will be less effective collisions and do less hydrogen given off in a given time (or a slower rate of reaction). This links directly with my prediction from my understanding of the collision theory; as the concentration of HCl particles decreases so does the rate of reaction. Evaluation: The results, although fairly basic, do link in with scientific theory. The curves on the graph seem fairly reliable as they show a decrease in the gradient when the molarity decreases. However, there are errors in the results as a great deal relies on human-eye for the reading of the Hydrogen collection. Using a gas syringe instead of a measuring cylinder could have lessened this problem. If this particular piece of equipment had been available, I may have been able to gather a more reliable and accurate set of results. ...read more.

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