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INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN MARBLE CHIPS AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID

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Introduction

INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN MARBLE CHIPS AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID Introduction This chemistry investigation was performed to investigate the rate of reaction between Marble Chips (Calcium Carbonate - CaCl ) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCL). In this investigation I want to find out whether the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid effects the amount of Carbon Dioxide being given off when the acid is added to Marble Chips. The reaction rate would tell me how fast or slow a chemical reaction is and there are four things that could affect this greatly, they are: - ? Concentration: An increase in concentration means there are more particles. More particles means there will be more collisions. This should increase the reaction rate. ? Surface Area: when one of the reactants is solid, the reaction can only take place at the surface of the solid. Breaking the solid into smaller pieces will increase the surface area exposed to the other reactant. This should increase the reaction rate. ? Temperature: since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. ? Catalysts: catalysts are substances that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the reaction. Catalysts are most often used to speed up a chemical reaction. They do so by changing the steps needed between reactants and the formation of the products. If the number of steps can be reduced, the reaction rate should increase. The Reaction Rate is often called the Collision Theory which describes the way temperature, concentration and surface area of the solid reactant affects the rate of reaction, by affecting collisions from particles. Particles react when they collide with sufficient energy. At a higher temperature collisions are more frequent and they also have more energy, both because particles are moving faster. ...read more.

Middle

Also, the smaller the marble chips are, the surface area will be increased and so I would expect the reaction rate to be increased. Apparatus List ? A conical flask - I chose this large enough to prevent spillage ? A rubber bung - To prevent accidents ? A gas syringe ? A delivery tube ( for connection to the gas syringe) ? A stand and clamp ? A stopwatch ? Calcium carbonate chips ? Hydrochloric acid - Different molarities ? Water Method When doing my experiments I will use the same procedure throughout. I will set out my equipment as shown in the diagram below:- Throughout the experiment I was ready with the stopwatch, so that I started and stopped it immediately it was necessary to get accurate readings. Once I have set up the apparatus I will measure out 5cm3 of acid in a measuring tube and then pour it into the conical flask. I will quickly place the chips into the acid, insert the bung in the top of the boiling tube and start the stopwatch. This must be done in as short a space of time as possible. From then on, I must take the reading of the volume in the gas syringe after a certain point is reached. I used eight different molarities of hydrochloric acid and then recorded the amount of carbon dioxide in the gas syringe. I will accurately record these roughly in a table and write them up neatly later. I will take into consideration that the speed with which I put in the marble chips, place in the bung and press the stop watch may well affect how well the experiment works. Although these factors will affect the end result so long as they are kept constant throughout then it should not matter too much. To get the best possible results I need to use the equipment in the best possible way, I could twist the gas syringe back and forth so as not to get the syringe stuck, which would affect my results. ...read more.

Conclusion

The graph shows that as temperature rises so does the speed of the reaction. This is due to the kinetic theory. As temperature increases, particles speed up, this happens in the acid and so acid particles collide more with the marble particles and so the reaction happens faster. This fits in with my hypothesis too. The graph shows a smooth curve which becomes more horizontal as it reaches the higher temperatures. This is because at what ever temperature, the reaction will never be instantaneous. I conclude that as temperature increases, so does rate of reaction, but the reaction is never instantaneous. (draw graph using the data given) Evaluating Evidence The experiment went quite well. There were no anomalous results and nothing went wrong. Although I have some ideas which may gain an even more accurate reading. Firstly, the surface area of the marble chips were not perfect. It could have been made better if I had used powdered marble chips because the surface area would have been a lot closer. (although if I did use marble chips, the concentration of the acid would have to be weaker because the reaction would be too fast.) Secondly, and inaccuracy may have been caused by the fact that the temperature may have dropped during the reaction. This could have been used if I used a water bath to heat up the acid instead. This way, I could also heat it during the reaction with relative safety. There are many possible extensions to this experiment. I could try to use other carbonates and react them with hydrochloric acid. I could try different acids also and see what happens. All these could help me broaden my knowledge on reaction rates. This essay was written atScarborough College (secondary school and college). The Teacher said "OK the marks were 8 - 8 - 7 - 6". The Student said " Have a look at the marks, even the tough evaluating of evidence was well tackled". This Essay was awarded a mark of A* 8 - 8 - 7 - 6 ...read more.

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