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Investigating the speed of the chemical reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid when using different concentrations

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Introduction

Investigating the speed of the chemical reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid when using different concentrations Plan Aim The aim of this experiment is to measure the volume of Carbon Dioxide gas (CO ) produced at set intervals during the reaction, and then calculate volume over time to find the rate of reaction. During this investigation I am going to vary only one factor, which is the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) whereas everything else must be kept constant. By changing the concentration I am able to determine whether the rate will increase or decrease with the concentration. Equation Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water CaCO + 2HCL --> CaCl + CO + H O Preliminary Experiment Before investigating the rate of reaction I decided that it is important to carry out some preliminary work. This is to enable me to carry out a fair and safe experiment. From the preliminary investigation I can decide which apparatus to use, which concentrations to create and how to obtain reliable results. Therefore I decided to vary the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (HCL). Diagram of preliminary experiment Method I set up the experiment as shown above and measured out the three different concentrations, each totalling 25cm�. I then chose (without weighing) 2 medium sized marble chips around the same size to use for each different concentration. I was ready to begin the experiment and obtain my results. I recorded the results at five-second intervals and carried on until the reaction stopped. As I had chosen three low concentrations, 1.5Mol/dm�, 1.0Mol/dm� and 0.5Mol/dm� the reactions were slow and it was difficult to keep track of the reading every five seconds. Results Time Taken (seconds) Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) - 1.5Mol/dm� Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) - 1Mol/dm� Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) - 0.5Mol/dm� 0 0 0 0 5 7 3 4 10 12 11 4 15 15 14 5 20 19 18 5 25 ...read more.

Middle

The reaction happens because of theses collisions. The particles move around and collide creating a reaction. The higher the concentration, the more particles, meaning the more collisions. Therefore double the concentration then you double the reaction. When the maximum rate of reaction is reached, this is when there are more substrate molecules than enzymes. The substrate molecules then have to 'queue' to collide, as the enzyme molecules are kept constant and so the rate of reaction cannot increase anymore. (diagram representing the collision theory) Breaking the marble chips (CaCO ) into smaller pieces increases the total surface area. Increasing the surface area boosts the amount of particles, which can collide with the hydrochloric acid. (graph showing the rate of reaction) A larger volume would also increase the rate of reaction, as there would be yet more particles to collide. All of the above reasons back up my prediction, indicating that it is likely to be a fast and violent reaction, increasing as the concentration does. Method * Measure 50cm� of dilute Hydrochloric Acid in the following concentrations, 3.0M, 2.0M, 1.5M, 1.0M, and 0.5M. Using a measuring cylinder pour each one into a conical flask. * Set up clamp stand and firmly, but carefully; clamp the gas syringe as shown in the diagram below. * Choose small marbles chips, of around the same size and weigh out 5.4g for each experiment. * Add the marble chips to the acid, replacing the rubber bung as quickly as possible and then start the stop clock as soon as the bung is in place. It is important that care is taken so as little carbon dioxide as possible is lost. * Record the volume of carbon dioxide given off every 10seconds. * Repeat each experiment for all concentrations twice to obtain reliable results. Apparatus * 50cm� of dilute hydrochloric acid - five different concentrations * 5.4grams of small marble chips (calcium carbonate) ...read more.

Conclusion

This shows that the readings were taken at the right time, the gas syringe worked properly and that the conical flask was not moved during the experiment. I can also confirm that my results were reliable as they supported my prediction, allowing me to draw a liable conclusion. If I were to carry out this experiment again then I would make various improvements. The experiment was carried out precisely and safely, so these areas would not need any adjustment. I would however, include more apparatus to obtain better and more informative results. I would keep a constant temperature. Instead of allowing the experiment to take place at room temperature, I would put the conical flask in a water bath and carry out the experiment at around 50�C. This would allow for a new area of investigation. I would however, have to keep the temperature constant, so I would need to constantly check on the water bath, placing a thermometer in both the conical flask and water bath. This would mean a specially designed bung would be needed, so that the thermometer would have a hole to go through. To obtain even more reliable results, I would work with a partner. Then one person could take down results and look at the time, whilst the other watches the gas syringe at all times. With two people working at the same experiment it would also be easier to put the bung on the conical flask and set the timer at the same time. If I were to extend the experiment I would use a water bath, as commented on previously, to obtain a higher temperature. I could then investigate whether the higher temperature would affect the speed of the reaction. I would also carry out more experiments, investigating different variables. This would expand my knowledge on how the rate of reaction changes and then I would be able to write a more detailed and learned investigation. Below is a diagram of the extended experiment that I would carry out, using a higher temperature. ...read more.

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