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Investigating TheEffect Of Concentration Of Acid On The Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Acid On The Rate of Reaction. Aim The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate. Preliminary Work Earlier an experiment was conducted on the effect of temperature between the same reactants. The procedure was as follows:- Both Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate was measured at 10 ml. The reactants were placed in a beaker which was in a water bath of a selected temperature. The range of temperatures are:- * 15�C * 25�C * 30�C The experiment was repeated twice with each temperature. The results of the experiment: Volume of HCl(ml) Volume of Thiosulphate (ml) Temperature (�C) Time taken for X to disappear (s) Average of time (s) 10 10 15 16.19s 10 10 15 18.31s 17.25s 10 10 25 6s 10 10 25 6.29s 6.14s 10 10 35 3.53s 10 10 35 3.15s 3.33s Conclusion At low temperatures the reacting particles have less energy. When the particles are heated they gain energy. The gaining of energy enables the particles to move around quicker, this, not only, increases the chances of colliding but also, the increase in energy increases the possibility of a collision occurring with sufficient energy. Therefore the rate of reaction increases with increasing temperature. ...read more.

Middle

They have the advantage of bringing about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures which would otherwise need more expensive and energy-demanding equipment. Prediction According to the background information, concentration is one of the factors affecting rate of reaction. This means that the rate of reaction is directly proportional to concentration of reactants. As well as, the time will decrease as concentration increases. Since there are more particles in a fixed volume, there will be more collisions and more reactions taking place using less time to complete. Consider the reaction: A +B --> AB The rate of the forward reaction would be proportional to [A] and [B]. The rate of backward reaction is proportional to [AB]. Let R� = Rate of Forward Reaction therefore R� = [A][B] ? R� = k1[A][B] Let R? = Rate of Backward Reaction therefore R? ? [AB] ? R? = k2[AB] At Equilibrium R� = R? then k1[A][B] = k2[AB] k1 [AB] --------- = --------- k2 [A][B] [AB] Kc = ---------- [A][B] Kc is called Equilibrium Constant. Based on this, the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid is likely to increase as the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid increases. Rate of Reaction ? [Hcl] Rate of Reaction = k[Hcl] Rate of Reaction k = ------------------------- [Hcl] Risk Assessment * While handling quantities of the higher concentrations, I should be careful not to spill the contents. ...read more.

Conclusion

At that exact moment, the timer will be stopped. This is the most accurate method that can be applied to get the correct time for the reaction's completion. There are two extensions I have thought for this investigation: The variables; volume of sodium Thiosulphate and volume of hydrochloric acid can be altered. The concentrations of both reactants are kept the same as well as temperature. The range of volumes that can be used can be from 10ml to 50ml in 10ml steps. Experiment 1 will carry out changes to the volume of sodium Thiosulphate and Experiment 2 will carry out changes to the volume of hydrochloric acid. The aim of this extension is to find out whether there will be any effect on the rate of reaction if volume is increased. Another extension is by using a different acid in place of hydrochloric acid. All other variables are kept constant; volume, temperature. So the reaction will be between Sodium Thiosulphate and Sulphuric Acid. I expect to see an increase in rate of reaction since Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) has 2 hydrogen ions more than Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). Sulphuric Acid can give out more ions so that means more collisions and more reactions at a faster rate. Concentration of acid is the independent variable and the range to be used is the same that of this experiment. ...read more.

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