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Investigation into how the amount of sodium carbonate used in a reaction between itself and hydrochloric acid affects the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced during the reaction.

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Introduction

Investigation into how the amount of sodium carbonate used in a reaction between itself and hydrochloric acid affects the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced during the reaction. Introduction Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reacts readily in excess hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. I am going to investigate how the amount of sodium carbonate affects the amount of carbon dioxide gas that is produced during the reaction. Prediction The equation for the reaction that I am going to carry out as part of this experiment is: Na2CO3 + 2HCl ? 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 1 mole of Na2CO3 gives 1 mole of CO2 ? [(2 x 23) + 12 + (3 x 16)]g Na2CO3 gives [12 + (2 x 16)]g CO2 ? 106g of Na2CO3 gives 44g of CO2 ? 1g of Na2CO3 gives 46 g of CO2 106 ?1g of Na2CO3 gives 0.42g of CO2 ? ?g of Na2CO3 gives ? x 0.42g of CO2 From looking at the moles calculation above I can predict that as the amount of carbonate used in the reaction increases, so will the amount of carbon dioxide gas that is produced. Also, I think that the relationship between these two factors will be directly proportional. I expect that as the amount of sodium carbonate used is doubled, the amount of carbon dioxide gas that is given off will also be doubled. ...read more.

Middle

Do the experiment twice for each mass of carbonate to check if your results are reliable. If they aren't reliable (if your second result is not within approximately 10 - 15% of the amount of gas produced the first time), do the experiment a third time. If, when the experiment is done for a third time, the reading is not within 15% of your first reading, but second reading, then don't repeat it a fourth time, as the first attempt will be considered as anomalous. 9) Make sure that you have recorded all of the results in an appropriate table. Preliminary results In my preliminary experiment, I only did the experiment for two different masses of the sodium carbonate - approximately 0.3g and 0.8g. This is because by doing two that are quite far apart I would see the general pattern of the experiment. There is no need to repeat the preliminary experiments, as they results are used only as a rough guide for the real experiment. Mass of ignition tube = 0.98g Mass of ignition tube and sodium carbonate = 1.77g Mass of sodium carbonate = 1.77 - 0.98 = 0.79g Volume of carbon dioxide gas given off = 132cm3 Moles of CO2 = 132 / 24000 = 0.0055 moles Mass of ignition tube = 1.1g Mass of ignition tube and sodium carbonate = 1.4g Mass of sodium carbonate = 1.4 - 1.1 = 0.3g Volume of carbon dioxide gas given off ...read more.

Conclusion

Volume of CO2 gas given off (cm3) % error between readings (%) first experiment second experiment 0.30 56 50 12.00 0.45 80 74 7.50 0.60 90 89 1.11 0.75 130 120 7.69 0.90 150 148 1.33 1.05 170 176 3.53 I have plotted the results that are in the above table on graph1 Also, from knowing the amount of gas given off, I can work out the amount of moles of carbon dioxide given off. In the table below, for the value of moles, I took an average of the two readings and then worked out the number of moles. Mass of Na2CO3 (g) Volume of CO2 gas given off (cm3) Moles of CO2 given off first experiment second experiment 0.30 56 50 0.0022 0.45 80 74 0.0032 0.60 90 89 0.0037 0.75 130 120 0.0052 0.90 150 148 0.0062 1.05 170 176 0.0072 I have plotted the results from the table above on graph 2 By looking at the graph, I can draw many conclusions Conclusions 1. As the mass of sodium carbonate increased, so did the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced. 2. There was a linear relationship between these two variables. 3. It also shows that the amount of carbonate used is directly proportional to the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced. 4. The results that I had obtained supported the prediction that I had made. 5. The method that I used produced reliable results, as they were within the zone that I would have expected them to be in if they were reliable. Umar Ahmed 4L Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

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