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Investigation into the Effects of Temperature on Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Investigation into the Effects of Temperature on Rate of Reaction A chemical company wanted to produce potassium chloride by the reaction below as quickly as possible, and would like to investigate how they can achieve this. K2CO3 + 2HCl --> 2KCl + H2O + CO2 Design an experiment using basic laboratory equipment, investigating the effects of temperature on the rate of reaction. Hypothesis As the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases, so will the rate of reaction between that and the potassium carbonate. Every 10 degrees increase will cause the rate of reaction to double. Collision theory states that for a reaction to occur, two molecules must collide with sufficient energy to react, and this energy is known as the activation energy. By heating the molecules, they are given more energy, and so the rate of collisions resulting in reactions increases. As mentioned, heating the molecules gives them more energy. I will heat the hydrochloric acid, and as it is a liquid, the energy the molecules gain will be transferred into kinetic energy and the molecules will move around at a greater speed. This increased speed will result in a greater probability of collisions occurring, thus increasing the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

I also want a wide range of results, and so will measure at 10�C, 20�C, 30�C, 40�C, 50�C, 60�C and 70�C. By this time, I will have thorough results that provide good conclusions. Alterations to Method After performing some preliminary tests, I found I had far too much potassium carbonate, and not enough hydrochloric acid. After experimenting with different mixtures, I decided to use 40 cm� of hydrochloric acid, still 1 mol, and 1g of potassium carbonate. I also decided not to stir the mixtures, as it is difficult to control, and often causes the results to happen very quickly, even at low temperatures. Results Table Temperature (�C) Time 1 (s) Time 2 (s) Time 3 (s) Average (s) Rate of Reaction (amount (1g)/time)*1000 10 222 227 225 225 4.44 20 139 113 115 114 8.77 30 17 70 67 69 14.49 40 37 38 36 37 27.03 50 13 27 15 14 71.43 60 9 12 9 10 100.00 70 4 4 6 5 200.00 Graph Conclusion My results show that increasing the temperature of a reaction, and so increasing the amount of energy, causes a rise in the rate of reaction. This is due to collision theory. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some stuck to the sides, sometimes it spread evenly, others it seemed to stay together. I could not mix it, as there was no accurate way to do this, and I feel this is the biggest weakness in the experiment. A way of guiding the potassium carbonate in would have helped, and perhaps some form of mechanical or electronic mixing to ensure it is fair every time. I think I had sufficient evidence to support my hypothesis; the results clearly show that increasing the temperature increases the rate of reaction. As the graph curves upwards, and gets higher quicker and quicker, it shows that increasing the temperature by a certain amount does cause the rate of reaction to double, and in this experiment it was around 10�C. To expand this experiment, and to further support my hypothesis, I would like to take intermediate results i.e. at 15�C, 25�C and so on. This would allow deeper analysis of the results, and to provide even more proof that the hypothesis is correct. It may also allow us to find out the exact temperature increment required to double the rate of reaction, which would be interesting and useful to know and understand. Investigating different concentrations of acid would also be an interesting expansion, and would allow us to find optimum conditions for increasing the rate of reaction, and possibly finding a link between rate of reaction and acid concentration. ...read more.

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