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Investigation into the factors that effect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Investigation into the factors that effect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid Planning Background research In order to design my experiment more accurately, I did some research to help me understand a bit more about reactions and how they occur: A reaction is when two particles (reactants) join to for a new product(s). Rate is a measure of how fast or slow something is. The rate of a chemical reaction is how fast the reactants react together. To measure the rate of a reaction, you should measure either the amount of reactant used up per unit of time, or the amount of product produced per unit of time. Activation energy is the amount of energy required for the reactants to react successfully react. The reactants need a certain amount of energy. Any excess energy increases their chances of a successful collision. The rate during a reaction doesn't remain constant. A reaction is more vigorous at first but slows down as the reaction goes on. This is because the longer the reaction takes place, the more of the reactants react, leaving fewer reactants with less chance of reacting. For the reactants to be able to react, they have to successfully collide with each other. The chance of a successful collision can be increased or decreased by using many different factors: Temperature: temperature alters the rate of a reaction by supplying the reactant particles with more energy. ...read more.

Middle

From research and the preliminary experiments, I know that surface area greatly effects the reaction rate so I took care to try and fine marble chips roughly the same size. Another variable I am taking into account is temperature, however, I cannot control the room temperature. I would therefore have to assume that the room temperature remained constant for the duration of the experiment. As I am purposely changing the concentration of the acid, I don't need to worry about it remaining constant throughout the experiment. Also, as I will not be adding a catalyst, there should be no reason for this to affect the fairness of the experiment. I also had to take into consideration the safety aspects of the experiment. I will wear safety goggles throughout the experiment. I will be careful not to spill any acid, but would take care beforehand that nothing was near the experiment that could cause an accident or be damaged if I did spill the acid. I will be careful with all glassware in case it breaks, and if it does I will make sure it is immediately cleaned up. As I am using boiling tube racks, the risk of glass breaking is made smaller. I will be careful with the more concentrated acids especially as it is corrosive, so I will be careful not to spill it on myself, especially in my eyes. This is why I will be wearing safety goggles at all times. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that one explanation for any points which didn't fit very well could be that I did not start time at the exact same point in each experiment as I could have had trouble putting the bung in the filter tube in one of the experiments but not in another one, so would therefore have started time after the reaction had already started. Another change I would make is maybe, instead of using filter tubes, I would use a conical flask as then I would not need to use boiling tube holders, and also as it has a wider base it is more stable so could reduce the risk of accidents occurring from acid spillage's. It would then also be easier to place on a balance with a solution inside it as I would need to do for any further experiments. To provide more evidence for my investigation, I could use a thermometer to measure the temperature during the experiment at the same regular intervals as I measure the amount of gas produced (every 10 seconds for 1 minute). This would show whether my theory of the lower concentration not heating up the reactants is true or not. For further investigation, I could use stronger acid to se if there is a limit to how quickly the reaction can take place. Also, I could measure the mass loss of the reaction by weighing the mass of the filter tube on the balance. I could take away the mass at regular intervals from the original and find out how quickly the reaction takes place. Claire Ainscow Chemistry coursework - Rates of Reaction ...read more.

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