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Investigation into the factors which affect the rate of catalase action.

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Introduction

Investigation into the factors which affect the rate of catalase action Catalase is an enzyme found in the cells of many organisms, both plants and animals. It speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (a highly toxic chemical produced in small quantities in cells as a by-product of metabolism) to water and oxygen. I was asked to investigate the effect of one factor on the rate at which catalase works. I will be using celery as the source of the catalase. Planning Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are produced in all living organisms and control all the chemical reactions that occur. There are 4 things that can affect the rate of the chemical reaction: temperature, pH, concentration of substrate and concentration of enzyme. When the temperature increases, the rate of reaction will increase because as the temperature is higher, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, then more pairs of particles will have enough energy between them to collide successfully. Also, because heat is given, it provide another source of energy to get the reaction started, so that enough molecules reach the activation energy and collide successfully which cause the reaction rate to increase. But if the temperature is too high (above 50 c), the enzyme will denature and stop working because the shapes of the enzymes can no longer combine with the substances. Any change in pH affects the ionic and hydrogen bonding in an enzyme and alters its shape. Extremes of pH will denature some enzymes. Each enzyme has an optimum pH at which its active site best fits the substrate. ...read more.

Middle

Pour the hydrogen peroxide into the conical flask and close the bung and start the timer 7. Record the volume of gas given off every 10 seconds (10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s) 8. Mix hydrogen peroxide with pure water to give the following percentage of concentration of acid: 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% 9. Repeat 1 - 8 using the 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% hydrogen peroxide 10.Repeat the whole experiment three times to get a more reliable result 11.Plot graphs for each concentration -volume of gas collected against time 12.Draw best-fit lines Diagram Analysis After I have done the experiment, I have got the results: 1st result Time (Seconds) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Volume of gas collected when there is 100% of H O (cm ) 9.4 14.7 18.6 20.5 22.9 24.7 / / Volume of gas collected when there is 80% of H O (cm ) 6.3 10.4 12.5 15.4 18.4 21.2 23.5 / Volume of gas collected when there is 60% of H O (cm ) 4.7 7.6 9.5 12.0 14.2 16.2 18.3 20.1 Volume of gas collected when there is 40% of H O (cm ) 2.2 4.3 6.1 7.8 9.5 11.2 12.8 14.5 Volume of gas collected when there is 20% of H O (cm ) 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.6 8.1 9.8 11.0 12.4 2nd result Time (Seconds) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Volume of gas collected when there is 100% of H O (cm ) 9.5 11.3 13.8 15.6 17.5 19.4 21.2 23.9 Volume of gas collected when there is 80% of H O (cm ) ...read more.

Conclusion

I can do the experiment in this way: For this experiment, I have used celery as a source of catalase, other than this; I can use potatoes or liver that may affect the time taken to collect gas, as they are different. Further experiment Planning Apparatus - A 50cm conical flask with a bung - A burette - Clamps and stand - Delivery tube - Container - 10cm measuring cylinder - A stopwatch - 20 vol of hydrogen peroxide - Potato tubes (catalase) Safety control - I have to make sure all the school bags and chairs are under the table, in case I trip over - I have to wear goggles, prevent any accidents that can damage my eyes - I have to make sure I handle all the glassware carefully - I have to handle the hydrogen peroxide very carefully because it is very toxic Method 1. Set up the experiment according to the diagram 2. Measure 10 g of catalase (potato juice) 3. Measure 10 cm of Hydrogen Peroxide 4. Pour the catalase into the conical flask 5. Fill the burette with water 6. Set up the light sensor and the computer 7. Turn on the tap and start the computer at the same time 8. Record the volume of gas given off every 10 seconds (10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s) 9. Mix hydrogen peroxide with pure water to give the following percentage of concentration of acid: 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% 10.Repeat 1 - 9 using the 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% hydrogen peroxide 11.Repeat the whole experiment three times to get a more accurate result 12.Plot graphs for different concentration- volume of gas collected against time 13.Draw best-fit lines 14.Analysis results ...read more.

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