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Investigation of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips

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Introduction

Investigation of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips A chemical reaction is when two or more substance called reactants are chemically bonded to form a new product, as a result of the process, for a reaction to take place, the particles must have enough kinetic energy to collide and form new bonds , this is called a successful collision. The minimum amount of energy needed for a successful collision is activation energy, which is "The energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process can occur". Chemical reaction is different to a physical reaction, chemical reaction are not reversible and results in a new product, however a physical reaction can be easily reversed as it only changed its state. The activation energy is able to loosen particles and enable them to from new bonds to produce new products. The faster the molecules are moving the bigger the chance of a successful collision, so the faster and stronger the reaction will be , the more kinetic energy a reactant has the easier it is for the new bonds the collide and produce new bonds. Variables that you could change Concentration of hydrochloric acid Surface area of chips Mass of marble chips Pressure Temperature Volume of hydrochloric acid Time allowed to measure oxygen given of Volume of gas collected Varying the concentration ...read more.

Middle

We started of timing how long it took to fill up with 10cm of carbon dioxide however this took far too long, so we changed it to 5cm so the experiment would be more time efficient. Below are the following results I got for my preliminary experiment. Safety To ensure the experiment is safe I will use safety goggles at all times, tie my hair back, and be careful when handling the acids. If there is a spillage I must immediately clean up and wash my hands. Fair test To ensure the investigation was a fair test I must control the following variables, -Mass of marbles (2 grams) - Pressure - Size of marbles (small) - Temperature (room temperature) - Catalyst Apparatuses I will use he following apparatuses -stopwatch - Small marbles chips weighing 2 grams -water tub -burette -conical flask - Delivery tube - set of weights -measuring cylinder - Concentration of hydrochloric acid consisting 50 ml of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2 Method 1) set up the apparatus, as shown in the diagram below 2) The next step is to measure the small marble chips, using the set of weights. Put the marble chips in a tub, then add more amounts until it weighs exactly 2 grams, do this for every experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

I still don't think my results were perfect. This may be due to a human error. Reading the measurements wrong or poor timing. It could be due to equipment errors. In my results I found that there was too much of a gap between concentration o.5 and 0.75, as there is a difference of 14 seconds, so maybe it would have been more appropriate for the experiment if I would have mixed a concentration in the middle of these too making my results less spread out and easier to read and understand. In my investigation i came across a few anomalous results, In concentration 1, one of the timings was 14.85, which didn't suit the general trend for that concentration so I did it again and got a time of 21.50, this may have been due to inaccurate timing. In the concentration 1.5 on my 3rd attempt I got a reading of 10.60 which was out of place so I did it gain at the end. In the concentration 2, I first recorded 13.48 which seemed to be too slow so I did it again and got 10.45, which suited more to the trend of that concentration. However these too may have not been anomalies but inaccurate results. The anomalies which I did encounter were probably due to certain variables not being controlled properly. ...read more.

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