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Lab Research Paper. Just a Pinch of Salt and a Dash of Bacteria: the effects of different salt concentrations on E. coli 101 and Bacillus Subtilis

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Introduction

Just a Pinch of Salt and a Dash of Bacteria: the effects of different salt concentrations on E. coli 101 and Bacillus Subtilis Jennifer Cha Biotechnology High School 2011-2012 Table of Contents Abstract................................................................ p. 3 Introduction.......................................................... p. 4 - 6 Materials.............................................................. p. 7 Methods............................................................... p. 8 - 12 Calculations.......................................................... p. 13 Results................................................................ p. 14 - 21 Discussion............................................................ p. 22 - 25 References............................................................ p. 26 Abstract: Rationale: This study will benefit the environment because understanding whether or not these bacteria can withstand high salt concentrations can help determine whether certain trees and plants can grow in saline ecosystems. There is much potential for growing trees in or near the oceans. If there was a possibility of doing so, the environment could be expanded exceedingly far. There would be more room to grow crops. Also, vegetation release oxygen as a byproduct. Having more plants would help with air pollution because more oxygen will be released into the air making it cleaner to breathe. The bacteria will help determine this because if the bacteria can cope with the salt and keep it from inhibiting it, then there is potential for growing vegetation in saline environments. Research Question: Which bacteria, E. coli 101 or Bacillus subtilis, can withstand higher concentrations of salt? Hypothesis: If there is a very high concentration of salt, then instead of inhibiting bacterial growth, it will help the bacteria, specifically E. coli 101, grow. Methods/Procedures/Concepts: The procedure for this experiment consisted of seven parts: Making LB Agar, Making LB Broth, Pouring plates, Creating plate cultures, Creating broth cultures, Making different concentrations of salt water, and Preparing experimental/test plates Brief statement of results & Conclusion: The results showed that the bacterial inhibition effects of salt water decreased day by day, and by the last day, some sections had no zone of inhibition. In conclusion, the hypothesis was rejected, but the bacteria have potential to be used to help vegetation cope with saline environments. ...read more.

Middle

The zones of inhibition were measured using a standard metric ruler in millimeters. Also, pictures of each individual plate were taken and qualitative observations were written down. After the course of three days, all the necessary data was collected and as a method of statistical analysis, the mean, median, mode, and range were calculated into a chart. The tables, graphs, and charts that display the information can be found on page. Calculations: LB Agar 4.38 grams/125 mL = x grams/500 mL 125x = 500(4.38) 125x = 2190 x = 2190/125 x = 17.52 grams LB Broth Salt Water Concentrations 0% = 100 mL + 0 grams of NaCl 1% = 100 mL + 1 gram of NaCl 3.5% = 100 mL + 3.5 grams of NaCl 7% = 100 mL + 7 grams of NaCl 15% = 100 mL + 15 grams of NaCl 25% = 100 mL + 25 grams of NaCl Results: Figure 1.1: E. coli 101 Day 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) 0% 17 0% 10 0% 12 1% 11 1% 12 1% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 7% 13 7% 10 7% 14 15% 10 15% 12 15% 10 25% 15 25% 12 25% 15 Figure 1.2: E. coli 101 Day 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) 0% 15 0% 10 0% 11 1% 10 1% 11 1% 8 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 7% 11 7% 9 7% 10 15% 10 15% 11 15% 9 25% 11 25% 10 25% 11 Figure 1.3: E. coli 101 Day 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) ...read more.

Conclusion

Sea water is usually 3.5% concentrated salt water and the Bacillus subtilis was able to grow even in this concentration. However, the bacteria was inhibited by the salt water for the first two days. But on the final day, B. subtilis flourished in the plate. To better this experiment, the next step would be to expand this experiment and add in vegetation as a factor. It has been concluded from this experiment that Bacillus subtilis would be the prime candidate for helping vegetation cope with salt stress. So, if there was a way that would allow the Bacillus subtilis to flourish on the vegetation of choice, then the vegetation could be watered with the salinity of sea water (3.5%) or could attempt to be grown in the sea water itself. This would further test the coping abilities of the Bacillus subtilis to deal with a saline environment. However, a couple flaws in this experiment would be that it would be difficult to measure the amount of bacteria growing on the plant, and it is probably not possible to measure of zone of inhibition. The experiment is still a work in progress, but if further research was done, the results may better the environment. Literature Cited: Blundell, M. R. & Wild, D. G. (1969). Inhibition of bacterial growth by metal salts. Biochemical Journal, 115(6), 207-212. Noe, G. B. (2002). Temporal variability matters: effects of constant vs. varying moisture on germination. Ecological Monographs, 72(3), 427-443. Portnoy, J.W. & Giblin, A.E. (1997). Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes. Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1054-1063. Torzilli, A. P. (1997). Tolerance to high temperature and salt stress by a salt marsh isolate of aureobasidium pullulans. Mycologia, 89(5), 786-792. Unknown, A. (2001, November 1). Salt Tolerance of Plants. Agriculture and Rural Development: Ropin' the Web. Retrieved November 18, 2001, from http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303 ?? ?? ?? ?? 26 JUST A PINCH OF SALT AND A DASH OF BACTERIA 1 Running head: JUST A PINCH OF SALT AND A DASH OF BACTERIA 2 APA FORMAT TEMPLATE 1 Running Head: APA FORMAT TEMPLATE ...read more.

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