• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26

Lab Research Paper. Just a Pinch of Salt and a Dash of Bacteria: the effects of different salt concentrations on E. coli 101 and Bacillus Subtilis

Extracts from this document...


Just a Pinch of Salt and a Dash of Bacteria: the effects of different salt concentrations on E. coli 101 and Bacillus Subtilis Jennifer Cha Biotechnology High School 2011-2012 Table of Contents Abstract................................................................ p. 3 Introduction.......................................................... p. 4 - 6 Materials.............................................................. p. 7 Methods............................................................... p. 8 - 12 Calculations.......................................................... p. 13 Results................................................................ p. 14 - 21 Discussion............................................................ p. 22 - 25 References............................................................ p. 26 Abstract: Rationale: This study will benefit the environment because understanding whether or not these bacteria can withstand high salt concentrations can help determine whether certain trees and plants can grow in saline ecosystems. There is much potential for growing trees in or near the oceans. If there was a possibility of doing so, the environment could be expanded exceedingly far. There would be more room to grow crops. Also, vegetation release oxygen as a byproduct. Having more plants would help with air pollution because more oxygen will be released into the air making it cleaner to breathe. The bacteria will help determine this because if the bacteria can cope with the salt and keep it from inhibiting it, then there is potential for growing vegetation in saline environments. Research Question: Which bacteria, E. coli 101 or Bacillus subtilis, can withstand higher concentrations of salt? Hypothesis: If there is a very high concentration of salt, then instead of inhibiting bacterial growth, it will help the bacteria, specifically E. coli 101, grow. Methods/Procedures/Concepts: The procedure for this experiment consisted of seven parts: Making LB Agar, Making LB Broth, Pouring plates, Creating plate cultures, Creating broth cultures, Making different concentrations of salt water, and Preparing experimental/test plates Brief statement of results & Conclusion: The results showed that the bacterial inhibition effects of salt water decreased day by day, and by the last day, some sections had no zone of inhibition. In conclusion, the hypothesis was rejected, but the bacteria have potential to be used to help vegetation cope with saline environments. ...read more.


The zones of inhibition were measured using a standard metric ruler in millimeters. Also, pictures of each individual plate were taken and qualitative observations were written down. After the course of three days, all the necessary data was collected and as a method of statistical analysis, the mean, median, mode, and range were calculated into a chart. The tables, graphs, and charts that display the information can be found on page. Calculations: LB Agar 4.38 grams/125 mL = x grams/500 mL 125x = 500(4.38) 125x = 2190 x = 2190/125 x = 17.52 grams LB Broth Salt Water Concentrations 0% = 100 mL + 0 grams of NaCl 1% = 100 mL + 1 gram of NaCl 3.5% = 100 mL + 3.5 grams of NaCl 7% = 100 mL + 7 grams of NaCl 15% = 100 mL + 15 grams of NaCl 25% = 100 mL + 25 grams of NaCl Results: Figure 1.1: E. coli 101 Day 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) 0% 17 0% 10 0% 12 1% 11 1% 12 1% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 7% 13 7% 10 7% 14 15% 10 15% 12 15% 10 25% 15 25% 12 25% 15 Figure 1.2: E. coli 101 Day 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) 0% 15 0% 10 0% 11 1% 10 1% 11 1% 8 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 3.5% 10 7% 11 7% 9 7% 10 15% 10 15% 11 15% 9 25% 11 25% 10 25% 11 Figure 1.3: E. coli 101 Day 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Salt Concentration Zone of Inhibition (in mm) ...read more.


Sea water is usually 3.5% concentrated salt water and the Bacillus subtilis was able to grow even in this concentration. However, the bacteria was inhibited by the salt water for the first two days. But on the final day, B. subtilis flourished in the plate. To better this experiment, the next step would be to expand this experiment and add in vegetation as a factor. It has been concluded from this experiment that Bacillus subtilis would be the prime candidate for helping vegetation cope with salt stress. So, if there was a way that would allow the Bacillus subtilis to flourish on the vegetation of choice, then the vegetation could be watered with the salinity of sea water (3.5%) or could attempt to be grown in the sea water itself. This would further test the coping abilities of the Bacillus subtilis to deal with a saline environment. However, a couple flaws in this experiment would be that it would be difficult to measure the amount of bacteria growing on the plant, and it is probably not possible to measure of zone of inhibition. The experiment is still a work in progress, but if further research was done, the results may better the environment. Literature Cited: Blundell, M. R. & Wild, D. G. (1969). Inhibition of bacterial growth by metal salts. Biochemical Journal, 115(6), 207-212. Noe, G. B. (2002). Temporal variability matters: effects of constant vs. varying moisture on germination. Ecological Monographs, 72(3), 427-443. Portnoy, J.W. & Giblin, A.E. (1997). Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes. Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1054-1063. Torzilli, A. P. (1997). Tolerance to high temperature and salt stress by a salt marsh isolate of aureobasidium pullulans. Mycologia, 89(5), 786-792. Unknown, A. (2001, November 1). Salt Tolerance of Plants. Agriculture and Rural Development: Ropin' the Web. Retrieved November 18, 2001, from http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303 ?? ?? ?? ?? 26 JUST A PINCH OF SALT AND A DASH OF BACTERIA 1 Running head: JUST A PINCH OF SALT AND A DASH OF BACTERIA 2 APA FORMAT TEMPLATE 1 Running Head: APA FORMAT TEMPLATE ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Life Processes & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Life Processes & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Thyroid Cancer Research Project

    3 star(s)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 percent of cancer patients younger than 65 delay or refuse treatment due to the high associated cost. However, resources are available to patients who need financial assistance.which makes a huge burden on the patient and the government especially if it was a growing country.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Pectinase Lab

    3 star(s)

    During these 10 minutes also spread the cheese cloths into two different funnels and place the filters above a measuring cylinder for each. 8) Once the 10 minutes are over, remove the test tubes out of the beakers and filter the paste through a filter paper into the measuring cylinders respectively.

  1. Diffusion in Agar Block

    Observe the colour changes taking place and stop the stopwatch only when the agar block has completely decolourised. This step may take some time. 7. Use the Pen and Paper provided to note down this time. 8. Remove the agar block from the solution and record any changes in appearance and dimensions if observed.

  2. Discover what effect water with different NaCl concentrations have on potatoes, and find out ...

    CONCLUSION From the results of this experiment I can conclude that as the salt content in water increases the number of cells plasmolysed increases. As predicted, the plasmolysed cells are flaccid (soft and spongy) because they have lost water. PREDICTION GRAPH Eventually the line would have to level off, because

  1. Cloning; Does it benefit or endanger society?

    The information provided by the source is very reliable as the NIH has a vast level of expertise in this area and their statements are likely backed by extensive research. Source 2: An article from Helium.com "The cloning of specific human organs can also be used to save the lives of the thousands.

  2. Investigating the effect of different concentration of glucose (C H O ) and salt ...

    is the smaller the mass and size of the potato chip at the end of the experiment would be. I also expect that as the concentration of both solutions increase, the volume of the external solution will increase as well.

  1. Planning and Experimental Procedures.

    The potato disc will become flaccid as the content of the potato cell shrinks and pulls away from the cell wall. Therefore, the solutions of lower sugar concentration will cause the greatest increase in mass of the potato discs as they will become turgid.

  2. Stephen Blackpool: The Pathetic Figure.

    His wife shows the condition of the workers who face the trouble and solve their problems in the wrong way. In addition, when Slackbridge, the leader of union strike, opposes the capitalist like Bounderby, and Stephen refuses to join the strike fighting for freedom and for the right of workers

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work