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Marble Chips and Acid

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Marble Chips and Acid I am going to conduct an investigation to determine how changing the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction in an acid-carbonate reaction. When marble chips (Calcium Carbonate) are added to Hydrochloric acid a reaction takes place. Gas is given off as a product of this reaction. The equation for the reaction is: - 2HCl + CaCO3 --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 I am going to use the fact that the speed of the reaction can be determined by measuring the amount of gas given off, as carbon dioxide is a product of the reaction. My prediction is that increasing the concentration (molarity) of the acid will increase the speed of reaction. This is because with a higher concentration of acid there are more acid molecules per unit volume, this means that there are more acid molecules available to collide, thus there will be more collisions, this means there will be more successful collisions, hence the reaction will take place faster. The apparatus required for this experiment is: - * A Clamp stand * A Basin of water * A measuring cylinder * A rubber tube * A sidearm flask * An accurate stop clock The apparatus must ...read more.


Light has a different effect. Most frequently it breaks up a particle like a molecule or an ion into smaller particles, which are more reactive than the particles originally present. * The size of particles that are reacting. Reactions involving small particles of solid are often very fast. The smaller the particles in a given amount of substance, the greater the area of surface exposed for chemical reaction' Source: Colin Johnson's Chemistry for GCSE pg. 54-55 *This supports my prediction as stated above To ensure that temperature does not affect my experiment, I will make sure all the apparatus, chemicals and reactants are maintained at room temperature throughout the experiment. I will carry the entire practical out in a single 1-hour chemistry lesson so that room temperature will not change dramatically during the course of the experiment. This will also aid in maintaining the atmospheric pressure that could also affect the accuracy of the results. Temperature not only affects the rate of reaction but along with atmospheric pressure it could also affect the volume of gas in the measuring cylinder. The molecules in gas are further apart when heated so the volume of the gas will be greater thus more water will be displaced by a lesser amount of CO2 molecules. ...read more.


Obviously I cannot keep the measuring cylinder submerged, however by collecting the bubbles of CO2 through the warm water and the fact the cylinder is in contact with the water in the water bath it should improve the accuracy noticeably. * To ensure that the concentration of the acids is accurate, they could be titrated against a known alkaline (Colin Johnson Chemistry for GCSE pg.58), this would give the exact molarity of the acid, meaning that I could compensate when plotting graphs etc. * To make sure the marble chips are of consistent size and shape, I could pass the chips through a sieve of a known diameter. This would mean that the surface areas of the chips are all similar. * To ensure that no gas escapes before the bung is inserted into the sidearm flask, there are 2 things that could be done 1. After the grains had been placed into the flask and the bung inserted, the acid could be injected into the flask through the bung. 2. A device such as depicted below could be used If the device is tipped, the acid will fall onto the marble chips and the reaction will begin without the loss of any gas (CO2) ...read more.

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