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Mass Spectrometer.

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Introduction

Mass Spectrometer Used to determine * the relative isotopic masses and abundance of isotopes * the relative molecular mass (Mr) and abundance of the organic compound Principles of the mass spectrometer * Apparatus enclosed in total vacuum, so that there are no colisions between the sample being investigated and the atmospheric air or the residue from previous samples. * Vacuum pump is to reduce pressure so less thermal energy is needed to vaporise the sample. The pump is to remove any traces of the previous sample traces of the air. ...read more.

Middle

This results in the formation of positively charged ions (cations), mainly single charged ions. If the sample is simple the molecules are ionised by being bomdarded by high energy electrons, causing bonds to vibrate and weaken, some bonds between molecules to produce small pieces of the original molecule known as smaller fragments and/or free radicals. Smaller pieces of the original lecule are known as moecular ions (M+) and are positively charged. Molecular can further fragment to form even smaller pieces, some of which may have a positive charge or no charge at all. Fragments with no charge are known as free radicals. ...read more.

Conclusion

reach the detector. * The intensity or the ion beam is picked up by the detector. Only gaseous ions with particular mass: charge ratio will hit the detector (fragments with no charge will not be detected). The detector counts the number of ions striking it . The signal produced by the detector is proportional to the number/or the abundance of ions striking it. * The signals passed on to the amplifier, which intensifies (magnifies) the signals received and then transmits it to the recorder. * The recorder then produces a graph known as a mass spectrum. Used * in rockets to study the chemistry of elements in space * to identify traces of toxic elements in food, water and drugs ...read more.

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