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metal extraction and reactivity

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Metal extraction and chemical reactivity * Metals have similar physical properties * Sodium: soft; reacts violently with air and water * Iron: reacts with air and water but slowly; forms rust * Gold: unreactive * Sodium> iron> gold (> = more reactive) a. Metal reactions i. With acid * Metal + HCl(dilute) - H2 + metal chloride * An order of reactivity, giving the most reactive metal first is called the reactivity series. * With air/ oxygen * Metal + O2 - metal oxide ii. With water / steam * (More reactive) metal + cold water - metal hydroxide + H2 * (Less reactive) metal + steam - metal oxide + H2 * Iron + copper: used in everyday objects * Mg: construction * Na and K: coolants for nuclear reactors b. Using the reactivity series i. Competition reactions in the solid state * A More reactive metal has more tendency to form a metal ion by losing electrons than a less reactive metal. * More reactive metal + less reactive metal's oxide - more reactive metal's oxide + less reactive metal - exothermic and redox reaction * Fe2O3 + 2Al -Al2O + 2Fe Thermit reaction Used to weld damaged railway lines; incendiary bombs ii. ...read more.


* CO - reducing agent - rises up and reduces iron oxide oxide ore - 700c (Fe2O3 + 3O2 - 2Fe + 3CO2) * Molten iron trickles to the bottom * Cao reacts with impurities to form liquid slag which is mainly silicate (CaO + SiO2 - CaSiO3) * CaSiO3 trickles to the bottom and floats on Fe * Both these substances are tapped off * Waste gases escape and are used in a heat exchange process to heat incoming air. * Slag is used by builders and road makers * The iron obtained by this process - pig iron (4% C) * Pig iron is called so because it is poured into moulds called pigs. This iron is brittle. * Uses: gas cylinders since they are unlikely to get deformed. * Majority of this iron produced in the blast furnace is converted into steel alloys. * Types of steel - manganese, tungsten, stainless ii. Zinc extraction * Zinc ore is first concentrated by froth floatation. * The crushed ore is fed into tanks of water containing a chemical frothing agent. * Air is blown through so that the whole mixture froths up. ...read more.


* Sacrificial protection: Zn bars are placed above Fe and since it's more reactive than Fe it will react first thus preventing Fe from rusting. * Corrosion: process which takes place when metals and alloys are chemically attacked by o2, water or any other substances found around them. * More reactive = more corrosion * Veralgris:cuco3.cu(oh)2 m. Alloys * Mixtures of two or more metals * Have more useful properties than the original pure metals n. Production of steel * Pig iron has s,si,and p - impurities which make it hard and brittle * These must be removed by the basic o2 process * Molten pig iron is poured into the basic o2 furnace * A water cooled pipe or lance is introduced into the furnace and o2 is blown onto the surface of the molten Fe. * C is oxidized to co and co2 while s is oxidized to co and co2 while s is oxidized to so2. These gases escape. * Si and p are oxidized to si2o5 and p2o5(solid oxides) * Cao is added to remove these as slag which may be skimmed or poured off. * Samples are taken continuously and when the required c content is reached, the blast of o2 is turned off. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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