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My aim is to put zinc, iron, magnesium, nickel and calcium into an order of reactivity by reacting them with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigating the Reactivity Series Planning Aim: My aim is to put zinc, iron, magnesium, nickel and calcium into an order of reactivity by reacting them with hydrochloric acid. Prediction: I predict that calcium will be the most reactive and nickel will be the least reactive. This is the order I predict they will react in: Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Zinc (Zn) Iron (Fe) Nickel (Ni) Scientific Knowledge: By looking at the reactivity series I can support my prediction. In the reactivity series the metals are listed in the order I predicted them. The following metals are listed in order of reactivity from most reactive to least reactive: 1. Potassium 2. Sodium 3. Calcium 4. Magnesium 5. Aluminium 6. Zinc 7. Iron 8. Lead 9. Copper 10. Mercury 11. Silver 12. Platinum 13. Gold This list was drawn up by looking at the way the different metals react with oxygen, water and acids: * The first six metals burn to form the metal oxide when they are heated in the presence of oxygen. Metals 7-9 react slowly and the bottom four metals react very slowly or not at all. ...read more.

Middle

I will record the temperature every 30 seconds for five minutes. I f I do all of this my experiment will be a fair one. Diagram OBTAINING EVIDENCE * The equipment will be safe to use and in case of any hazardous situations I will be wearing goggles and an overall to protect me. * I will take a measurement every 30 seconds for five minutes * Altogether I will take 10 measurements for each metal and I will do each metal twice. Results Zinc Time (seconds) Temperature 1 (degrees) Temperature 2 (degrees) Average (degrees) 0 25 29 27 30 29 27 28 60 30 28 29 90 32 28 30 120 34 29 31.5 150 35 30 32.2 180 36 30 33 210 36 31 33.5 240 36 31 33.5 270 37 32 34.5 300 37 32 34.5 Magnesium Time Temperature 1 Temperature 2 Average 0 29 30 29.5 30 54 71 62.5 60 52 65 58.5 90 50 60 55 120 48 56 52 150 44 54 49 180 43 50 46.5 210 42 47 44.5 240 40 49 44.5 270 39 44 41.5 300 39 44 41.5 Calcium Time Temperature 1 Temperature 2 Average 0 29 29 29 30 70 63 66.5 60 ...read more.

Conclusion

It did not continue to rise and it started to decrease after 30 seconds. As I predicted Nickel would hardly react and it didn't. The temperatures almost remained the same and it had only risen by one degrees. Evaluating Evidence I have completed the experiment and I can now safely say that it was a successful one. I think this because my prediction was correct and the metals reacted in the way that science says they do. My measurements are accurate because I took them accurately. I made sure I measured the temperature after 30 seconds and to make sure there was nothing wrong I did each metal twice. My results are reliable because they are accurate and there is nothing unusual about them. Maybe if I had better equipment I could have made them even better. But I made the most of my resources and got the best results possible. Although it was a fair experiment I could have made it even fairer by putting even more accurate volumes of metals and with better reading equipment I could have taken more accurate readings. I could have experimented with other acids and discovered the differences. But I did not have the time and resources for this and with what I had I done the best possible. Majid Hussain ...read more.

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