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Physics Investigation - What factors affect the efficiency of siphoning?

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Introduction

Physics Investigation - What factors affect the efficiency of siphoning? * Research & Rationale: I have chosen to investigate siphoning because as a kid I was always intrigued and puzzled by this "phenomena" when I used to clean my fish tank. The difficulty factor also played a major role. I wanted to do something which could be carried out comfortably in a relatively short time. An investigation, which is not so demanding on the practical side to allow more time for processing of the data captured. On a more scientific note I am interested in mechanics of fluids. This interest was enforced last year when I had the opportunity to attend a lecture on fluid mechanics at P&G. At the conference I greatly expanded my knowledge regarding the physical aspect of fluids and their properties. In last year's AS course we have met a topic in this field. I will be applying ideas and knowledge gathered from last year for this investigation. I will also be looking at more complex concepts and ideas such as Reynolds's number, the effect of temperature on viscosity and liquid density, which we have not met in last year's course. The areas I will be looking into are as follows: 1) The effect of the Pipe Diameter on flow rate. - the effect of Pipe Diameter on liquid flow (turbulent/laminar) 2) The effect of Temperature of liquid on flow rate. - the effect of Temperature on liquid flow (turbulent/laminar) 3) The effect of the Vertical height between source and destination of the fluid on flow rate. - the effect of Vertical height on liquid flow (turbulent/laminar) 4) The effect of the Liquid's Viscosity/Density on flow rate. - the effect of Viscosity on liquid flow (turbulent/laminar) I have consulted my teachers for guidance and I have also looked very carefully into the "the Suggestions papers" which contain many possible investigations which have been done in the past. ...read more.

Middle

This could be hazardous if liquids end up everywhere on the floor. This happened in the pilot run, the pipe floated, fell out of the beaker and water was spilled everywhere! These where the results obtained in the pilot run: Pipe Diameter: Time taken to displace 200 ml of water through a: Run ?1 Run ?2 Run ?3 5 mm diameter pipe: 19 seconds 21 seconds 18 seconds 9 mm diameter pipe: 8 seconds 6 seconds 5 seconds The results show as predicted that the larger pipe can displacement water a larger rate than the smaller pipe. However the times were not consistent. This shows that I'm not carrying out the practical to the accuracy needed. I will be striving to try and reduce the range of results obtained. In the real thing I will be calculating the flow rate rather then show the times but as this is just a pilot run this was necessary. Liquid Temperature: Time taken to displace 200 ml of water using a 3mm pipe at: Run ?1 Run ?2 Run ?3 18*C 56 seconds 53 seconds 54 seconds 88*C 45 seconds 46 seconds 43 seconds The results were more or less consistent this time but in the real thing I will be trying to cut down the range of results even further. The results confirmed my prediction which is the warmer liquid will be displaced faster then the colder one. One modification I will be doing in the real thing when it comes to holding warm liquids is to insulate the beaker with foil. This is to keep the temperature from decreasing while the water is being displaced. Although the temperature drop is likely to be minimal I would like to be as fussy as possible to obtain accurate results. Vertical height between Beaker A & B: Time taken to displace 200 ml of water using a 3mm pipe with: Run ?1 Run ?2 Run ?3 27cm vertical distance 79 seconds 79 seconds 80 seconds 80 cm vertical ...read more.

Conclusion

I've decided against this just due to the fact that the temperatures I have to attain for the liquid is rather high and would be too time consuming to reach such high temperatures using a hot water bath. So as an alternative I've opted to simple heat the liquid by heating it on a Bunsen burner. This way I can easily obtained the desired temperature in a relatively short period of time. It goes without saying...Oil is very messy so I have to keep an eye on spillages! IV. The effect of Vertical Height on flow rate: Factors to keep constant: Pipe Diameter: 7 mm Liquid Temperature 20*C Liquid Volume: 300 ml Liquid used: Tap Water Results: Vertical Height Run #1 Vertical Height Liquid Flow 0.5 m 9.00 s 0.5 m 0.03333 m� / s 0.4 m 15.14 s 0.4 m 0.01982 m� / s 0.3 m 19.19 s 0.3 m 0.01563 m� / s 0.2 m 25.53 s 0.2 m 0.01175 m� / s 0.1 m 52 s 0.1 m 0.00577 m� / s 0.0 m --- 0.0 m 0.00000 m� / s There is nothing which I want to change in respect to this part of the investigation. Accuracy with measuring height could be improved but apart from that there will be no alterations carried out to the apparatus. * Final Results: I. The effect of Pipe Diameter on flow rate: Factors to keep constant: Liquid Temperature: 20*C Vertical Height: 0.50 m Liquid Volume: 300 ml Liquid used: Tap water Results: Pipe Diameter Run #1 Run #2 Run #3 3 mm 90.92 s 91.06 s 90.72 s 5 mm 20.51 s 21.39s 21.25 s 7 mm 8.94 s 9.00 s 8.87 s 9 mm 4.01 s 3.93 s 4.07 s Average readings: Flow Rate: Pipe Diameter Average Reading Pipe Diameter Flow rate 3 mm 90.09 s 3 mm 0.00333 m� / s 5 mm 21.05 s 5 mm 0.01425 m� / s 7 mm 8.94 s 7 mm 0.03356 m� / s 9 mm 4.00 s 9 mm 0.07500 m� / s Robbie Mallia - Physics Investigation ...read more.

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