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# Propanol Investigation

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Introduction

Prediction & Hypothesis I predict that Propanol will produce the most heat on burning, as its energy out put is higher then any of the other Alcohols. I concluded by calculating the theoretical values of burning for each of the Alcohols. These were my calculations. > Methanol Word Equation Methanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Molecular Equation 2CH(3)OH + 3O(2) 2CO(2) + 4H(2)O Structural Equation H | H-C-O-H O=O H-O-H | O=C=O H + + H-O-H H O=O H-O-H | H-C-O-H O=C=O H-O-H | O=O H Bond Breaking Values Number Of Bonds to be Broken Type of Bond Relative amount of energy Needed per bond in kJ Total amount of energy needed in kJ 6 H-C 413 2478 2 C-O 358 716 2 O-H 464 928 3 O=O 498 1494 Total amount of energy needed to break bonds in kJ +5616 Bond Creating Values Number Of Bonds to be Created Type of Bond Relative amount of energy Needed per bond in kJ Total amount of energy needed in kJ 4 O=C 805 3220 8 H-O 464 3712 Total amount of energy released Creating bonds in kJ - 6932 5616 6932 - -1316 The reaction is exothermic by. ...read more.

Middle

in kJ 12 O=C 805 9660 16 H-O 464 7424 Total amount of energy released Creating bonds in kJ - 17084 12832 17084 - 4252 The reaction is exothermic by . 4252 kJ > Butanol Word Equation Butanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Molecular Equation C (4) H (9) OH + 6O(2) 4CO(2)+ 5H(2) O Structural Equation H H H H O=O H-O-H | | | | O=C=O H-C-C-C-C-O-H O=O H-O-H | | | | O=C=O H H H H + O=O + H-O-H O=C=O O=O H-O-H O=C=O O=O H-O-H O=O Bond Breaking Values Number Of Bonds to be Broken Type of Bond Relative amount of energy Needed per bond in kJ Total amount of energy needed in kJ 9 H-C 413 3717 1 C-O 358 358 3 C-C 347 1041 1 O-H 464 464 6 O=O 498 2988 Total amount of energy needed to break bonds in kJ + 8568 Bond Creating Values Number Of Bonds to be Created Type of Bond Relative amount of energy Needed per bond in kJ Total amount of energy needed in kJ 8 O=C 805 6440 10 H-O 464 4640 Total amount of energy released Creating bonds in kJ - 11080 8568 11080 -2512 The reaction is exothermic by. ...read more.

Conclusion

Results Type Of Alcohol Mass lost Mass lost Mass lost Average Mass lost Methanol 3.65 3.50 N/A 3.57 Ethanol 3.23 3.05 3.19 3.21 Propanol 2.43 2.83 2.49 2.46 Butanol 2.41 2.71 2.65 2.74 These results show that Propanol produces the most heat on burning as it loses the least amount of fuel after heating the water. Graph Conclusion My results show that as predicted Propanol gives the most heat on burning. My results also show that methanol produced the worst amount of heat on burning this result was unexpected as ethanol was predicted to be the most inefficient alcohol. This may have been because of incomplete combustion. Evaluation My predictions where not entirely accurate because out of the total energy lost part of that would be in the release of energy in the form of light or incomplete combustion. To make this experiment more reliable I would put the apparatus in an controlled environment where any drafts or the moisture in the air could affect it (moisture may absorb some of the heat given off) Year 11 GCSE Chemistry Comparing Heat Output of Alcohols 30/04/07 Aaron Heritage-Smith 1 * Numbers in Brackets refer to the number of each atom in a molecule i.e. H O is H (2) O ...read more.

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