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Rate of Chemical Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Rate of Chemical Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Aim: - I plan to investigate the effect of temperature, to see if it increases or decreases the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Prediction: - I predict that as the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases, the quicker the rate of reaction will be. This is due to the molecules in the hydrochloric acid gaining energy from the heat. Consequently, the molecules have increased kinetic energy, which will produce more activation energy. The particles will have more successful collisions resulting in a faster reaction rate. No heat Heat present The above diagram show that when there is more heat present there are more lines of reaction than if there was less heat. This is due to the number of successful collisions being far greater when the hydrochloric acid is heated. I predict also that if I did a graph showing the volume of gas against time it would look like the following. From the above graph you can see that when the Time Increases the volume of gas being produced goes up, then it levels off. It levels off because the volume of hydrogen gas being produced is slowing down because all the magnesium and hydrochloric acid is being used up. Fair test In order to keep my experiment as fair as possible I will have to make sure I keep the following factors the same: - Volume of acid (25cm3) ...read more.

Middle

If gets in eye's:- Flood eye with gently running water for 10 minutes. If spilt:- Scoop up as much as possible, wash spillage. Hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is corrosive so be wary you don't burn your self. If swallowed:- Give plenty of water. Get medical attention. If inhaled:- Move victim to fresh are to rest. If spilt:- Wear eye protection and gloves. Hydrogen Hydrogen is extremely flammable so don't be tempted to light the gas. Do not attempt to breath hydrogen to change pitch of voice. Diagram Method * Measure out 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder and place it in a beaker. * Measure out 0.1g of Magnesium using some scales and place it in the side arm conical. * Hold the glass syringes with a clamp and stand to the height of 5 cm * Place the rubber of the side arm conical over the end of the glass syringe. * Place the hydrochloric acid in with the magnesium turnings in the side arm conical and quickly place the bung on top. * Take readings of how much hydrogen is being produced every 5 seconds from the glass syringes use a stop clock to do this. * Repeat the experiment 5 times with different temperatures every time. I will use the following temperatures: 20 0C, 30 0C, 40 0C, 50 0C, and 60 0C. * To heat the acid at these temperatures I will use a Bunsen burner and check the readings with a thermometer. ...read more.

Conclusion

The hydrogen could also have escaped from the connections between the side arm conical and the gas syringe, so again this could have affected my results. If I were to repeat the experiment again I would use: - * A dropping funnel to add the hydrochloric acid to the magnesium, this would allow me to add the hydrochloric to the magnesium turnings without placing the bung on. So this would allow me to put the hydrochloric acid in with the magnesium, without any hydrogen getting released before I had chance to start the stop clock. * A water bath to heat the acid instead of a Bunsen burner, because if I was using a water bath I could be more accurate then if I was using a Bunsen burner. * A pipette to measure the volume of the acid instead of using a measuring cylinder. I would do this because I could achieve a much more accurate reading when using a pipette. * More accurate scales to weigh out the magnesium turnings. * Be more accurate whilst reading the stop clock. * Different types of acid, instead of hydrochloric I could use phosphoric acid. * Different temperatures. Despite some potential experimental error, the evidence taken from the experiment is reliable, as each of the curves demonstrated the same trend of increasing reaction rate with temperature. This is also confirmed by the rate of reaction chart (7), which shows an increasing reaction rate with time for each temperature. All these effects were predicted in the theoretical review of the experiment presented at the plan section of the report. ...read more.

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