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Rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Rate of reaction Introduction: The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. During a reaction, we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time or you can choose to measure how much product is formed in a certain time. There are different variables that could b used to measure to see the change in the rate of reaction. These include temperature, concentration or catalysts. There are four factors which affect the rate of reaction, these are: 1. Concentration of liquids 2. Catalyst 3. Surface area 4. Temperature The factor that I will base my experiment around is the temperature of the water and Sodium Thiosulphate. I will use this because: A catalyst is not required as the reaction is fast enough at room temperature Surface area is not a suitable factor to use in an experiment where only liquids are used. Concentration could be used, but I am examining temperature so I will use concentration in my preliminary work. Aim: The aim for this experiment is to investigate what affects the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

If you raise the temperature by 10 degrees Celsius, you roughly double the rate of many reactions. Equipment 100cm3 Conical Flask Stopwatch Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Thiosulphate Water 50cm3 Measuring Cylinder 10cm3 Measuring Cylinder Thermometer 0-110 oC Thermometer Kettle Diagram: Method: 1. Set up apparatus 2. Record the temperature of sodium Thiosulphate solution 3. Pour in the hydrochloric acid into the sodium Thiosulphate solution 4. Start the clock 5. Stop the clock when the solution becomes milky and the cross is no longer visible 6. Record the time taken in seconds 7. Boil water in a kettle 8. Pour boiling water into a beaker 9. Place conical flask with the sodium Thiosulphate solution inside, into the beaker 10. Remove conical flask when temperature is raised to 10o C 11. Repeat steps 2-6 using the same volume of sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid 12. Repeat steps above 3 times Fair testing: For this experiment to be a fair test I will make sure that I completely rinse all of my apparatus to make sure that I remove any particles that may have been left from previous experiments. ...read more.

Conclusion

I also have an average worked out from the three attempts I carried out. My prediction has been proven. The time for the reaction to occur will steadily decrease as I increase the temperature. The results table and graph shows this. Evaluation: Overall, I think that my experiment went quite good. If I could improve on this experiment I would change the plastic measuring cylinders we used to measure out our liquids to glass pipettes. This is because measuring cylinders are mass-produced and so are not 100 % accurate. A glass pipette should have been used as they are hand made and much more accurate. Also glass is clearer than plastic so you can take a reading of the liquids easier and more accurately. The substances we used were made from stock solutions that were made fresh every lesson therefore the concentration of these substances changed slightly from day to day during the experiment. The equipment was rinsed with tap water that contains many impurities, which may have contaminated or changed the concentration of the liquids. Distilled water should have been used as it is pure and has no impurities but once again I didn't have the time to keep distilling more and more water just to rinse my equipment. ...read more.

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