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# Rate of reaction = change in absorbency/change in time

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Introduction

Skill B- Implementing Table of Results: Temp 20oC Temp 30oC Temp 40oC Test=> 1 2 3 ave Test=> 1 2 3 ave Test=> 1 2 3 Ave Time sec Time sec Time sec 60 0.15 0.13 0.16 0.15 60 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 60 0.20 0.20 0.25 0.22 120 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.20 120 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 120 0.30 0.25 0.30 0.28 180 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.28 180 0.30 0.35 0,35 0.03 180 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.38 240 0.40 0.35 0.45 0.40 240 0.45 0.40 0.45 0.43 240 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.45 300 0.45 0.40 0.45 0.43 300 0.50 0.45 0.50 0.48 300 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.50 360 0.45 0.40 0.45 0.43 360 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 360 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.57 420 0.45 0.40 0.45 0.43 420 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 420 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 Temp 50oC Temp 60oC Temp 70oC Test=> 1 2 3 ave Test=> 1 2 3 ave Test=> 1 2 3 ave Time sec Time sec Time sec 60 0.20 0.30 0.35 0.28 60 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.28 60 0.30 0.40 0.40 0.37 120 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 120 0.40 ...read more.

Middle

60�C released more than 40�C and that temperature released more than 20�C. Also the line of best fit showed that the amount of pigment released increased as time passed. Which is what I predicted. The reason for this is that more pigment is being released into the surroundings. at 20�C, 30�C, 40�C pigment is released at a steady rate and 60�C. 70�C and 80�C the speed of absorption has increased. This explains the steady absorbency as temp goes up. A reason for the pigment escaping could be that the proteins in the cell membrane could get denatured, meaning that the pigment can escape. Therefore at a higher temperature the cell wall becomes unstable quicker and denatured allowing pigment to escape into the water. The fact that heat is known to denature proteins could prove that is why the pigment escapes. The graph and table show that there is a greater absorbency margin as the temperature increases. This can be seen when comparing 40�C and 80�C at 5-6 mins 40�C only rises a absorption rate of 3 where as 80�C by 13, and then from 6-7 mins 40�C by ...read more.

Conclusion

Anomalous Results: When looking at the graph I can see that there are no anomalous results, which could indicate that the experiment was quite precise, but that does not mean that it is accurate. The readings I got might be along the same trend but that trend could miles off the actual value. This normally suggests that it is not down the human error but the equipment used is the cause for error. However if I look at the table of results I can see that there are two anomalous results that do not fit in with the trend. This could be down to human or experimental error. Skill D-Evaluating Evidence and Procedures Changes to The Experiment: The experiment was changed to make it easier to take results, by using a full test tube colorimeter with the beetroot on pins to make it quicker to pull out after the short time limit. There would be a increase of pigment released due to the pin being inserted to the beetroot but washing off the excess pigment in the water bath for 2mins beforehand will have reduced the error for this. Criticism of Apparatus: ...read more.

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