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# Rates of reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry coursework rates of reaction Background theory For a reaction to take place the two or how ever many different types of particle have to collide. The faster and more of the particles colliding the faster the reaction will go. To increase the speed of the reaction you can put more energy in to the reaction, the more energy in the reaction the more likely the particles are to overcome the activation energy. The activation energy is the amount of energy needed for the reaction to take place. There five ways of increasing the speed of a reaction these are; Increasing the concentration If the concentration of a solution is increased there are more reactant particles per unit volume. This increase the probability of reactant particles colliding with each other. Surface area If a solid is powdered then there is a greater surface area available for a reaction, compared to the same mass of un powdered solid. Only particles on the surface of the solid will be able to undergo collision with the particles in a solution or gas. Energy is transferred between the colliding particles... Increase in temperature When there is an increase in temperature the particles are given more energy, the now move faster and are far more likely to collide than they would be at a lower temperature. ...read more.

Middle

take the following precautions; I will always look at the cross from the same distance and angle, I will be careful not to mix up any chemicals left in the wrong measuring cylinders and I will wash all the equipment between each result. Prediction Using my background theory I have put together a prediction. For the experiment I predict that the stronger the concentration the faster the reaction will be. This is because when the concentration is increased there are more reactant particles per unit volume. This increases the probability of a reactant particles colliding. Variables and constants * The concentration of the two chemicals will be different * The temperature the reaction takes place will be the same * The amount of light will be the same * The place and angle that the beaker is observed from will be the same * Total volume of liquid will be the same in each experiment * results Mol HCL Mol S.T. S.T. HCl H20 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Average 0.4 0.05 20 20 0 25 25.41 24.03 24.813333 0.36 0.05 20 18 2 26.59 26.88 26.89 26.786667 0.32 0.05 20 16 4 27.35 26.93 27.14 27.14 0.28 0.05 20 14 6 27.56 27.15 27.86 27.523333 0.24 ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation The results I obtained In this experiment were of a fairly good standard, and my method and recording of results were also satisfactory, but I do think that there could have been be accuracy used. The average results were pretty good, but when looking at set three I have notice an anomaly 0.040 and 0.035 are practically the same and 0.035 should be at lest 5 or 6 seconds long. Fortunately the average has not been completely ruined because of sets one and two. The method was a good one, but it did include some human error, I would have thought that there would have been a better way of telling when the reaction was finished than looking over it. If I did the experiment again I would have definitely done more sets of results for a better degree of accuracy. The results were full of human error and can never really be exact unless I find a better method of doing the experiment. Because of this the conclusion can be right, in that it will state that concentration increases speed, but it won't make a good enough graph to show a great degree of accuracy in the conclusion. I think the anomaly will have been human error that was bound to happen, because of poor judgement. * ...read more.

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