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Rates of Reaction Investigation

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Introduction

Background Information Particle This says that everything is made of atoms and depending on their properties, the object is one of the three states of matter - Solid, Liquid or Gas. SOLIDS - Have a fixed position and are hard to compress. The particles have strong forces of attraction and are usually very dense. LIQUIDS - Don't keep a certain shape and take the shape of the bottom of the container. These cannot be compressed easily and are quite dense. There is some force of attraction between the particles. GASES - These do not have a definite shape but they take the shape of the container they are in. They are easily compressed and there is no force of attraction between the particles. They also have low densities. Collision This theory details the conditions that are needed for a reaction to happen and how a reaction can be increased. For a reaction to happen, particles have to collide, and collide with enough energy to break and then remake bonds. The four things that can speed up a reaction are: * Temperature - higher temperature gives the particles more energy and therefore more collisions occur * Pressure - the closer the particles, the more likely they are to collide * Surface area - if larger objects are broken down, there is more area to be collided with * Catalyst - speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up itself. ...read more.

Middle

Equipment > 12 x 1g Calcium carbonate > 12 x 25ml Hydrochloric Acid > Conical Flask > Gas Syringe > Rubber bung with tube through it > Stop clock > Goggles > Measuring cylinder > Measuring scales Table of Variables FIXED CHANGED DEPENDANT Volume of acid Concentration of acid CO2 gas given off Temperature of acid Mass of CaCO3 Surface area of CaCO3 Fair Test I will make the experiment a fair test by testing each strength of acid three times, or two if they are close, for accuracy and do all of the experiments for one strength on one day so that the room conditions do not vary. Also I will follow the table of variables above and only change one variable. The diagram below shows the hydrochloric acid reacting with the calcium carbonate and giving off carbon dioxide, which is rising and then escaping through the tube in the rubber bung to the gas syringe where the arrow illustrates the direction in which the carbon dioxide pushes the syringe. My results show that the higher the concentration of acid, the more carbon dioxide it gives off. The graph supports this along with it showing that the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction as the curve of best fit is steeper as the concentration of acid increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another way to do the experiment would be to find the weight of the calcium carbonate before and then after the experiment to find the change in mass. I believe that this would give the same, or similar results, i.e. the stronger the concentration, the larger the change in mass. I could also have measured the surface area before and after the experiment as I predict this would give the same pattern of results although this would be impractical to measure. Another variation of this experiment would be to put the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate into a conical flask and place cotton wool in the top to stop splashes escaping but still allowing Carbon Dioxide to escape. I would measure the mass of the solution at the start and then at 30-second intervals for 6 minutes. I believe this method would give the same pattern of results as the experiment that I performed. My results are reliable as they show a clear time difference between the different experiments with their being no anomalous results, although the 1 and 11/2 M experiments were very close with the other two being vastly different. This could have happened because the room conditions could have been significantly different to when the other experiments were carried out. If I were to provide more results, and therefore improve the accuracy of them, I would've needed a great deal more time than was physically possible to allocate. ...read more.

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