• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28
  29. 29
  30. 30

Rates of reactivity.

Extracts from this document...


Introduction Rates of reactivity The rate of reaction is simply how fast it takes for a complete reaction to occur. In this coursework the following factors will be investigated to discover whether or not they affect the rate of reaction: * Surface area of reactants. * The temperature of reactants. * The concentration of reactants. * The involvement of a catalyst in a reaction. Collision Theory This states that reactions only commence when reacting particles collide with each other with a sufficient amount of energy, the minimum amount of energy. When the temperature of the reactants is increased particles absorb energy and move around a lot faster. This increases the chance of collisions. Increased concentration leads to more reactive particles and therefore more chance of collisions, increasing the rate of reactivity. Small pieces of reactants mean a large surface area. This allows more collision to take place resulting in a faster rate of reaction. Catalysts allow particles to react with a lower amount of energy. They also provide a surface for the particles to attach to; therefore the chances of collisions are higher. What is meant by rate of reaction? Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) In order for the magnesium and acid particles to react together, they must have the following bullet points present: * They must collide with each other. * The collision must have enough energy for the reaction to take place. Acid particles Water molecules Magnesium atoms The particles in the liquid move around continually. Here an acid particle is about to collide with a magnesium atom. Here the reaction is taking place. If enough energy is present then the reaction would take place and magnesium chloride and hydrogen will be formed. Acid particles Water molecules Magnesium atoms If not enough energy is present then the will be no reaction. ...read more.


* When the magnesium strip is dissolved the stopwatch is stopped. * Three trails are taken to obtain accurate results via an average. * The results are recorded on a table. * The test of suspended in a water bath of plain water. * Then we light the Bunsen burner. * Then we get the test tube out the fridge and check the temperature. * When the temperature is exact 200c, we add a magnesium strip to the acid. * When the magnesium strip is dissolved then we stop the stopwatch. * The result is recorded on a table. * We do the same every time, but we increase the temperature by 200c. * We record the results up to 1000c. Results The table shown on the next page shows the results that are based on the temperature experiment: Table 3b Temperature Degree Celsius Trial 1 Time taken (Seconds) Trial 2 Time taken (Seconds) Trial 3 Time taken (Seconds) Average Time taken (Seconds) 100c 59 60 61 60 200c 54 55 56 55 300c 54 55 56 55 400c 52 53 54 53 500c 47 48 49 48 600c 45 46 47 46 700c 39 40 41 40 800c 36 37 38 37 This data is shown on graph 2b on the next page: Factors affecting the rate of reaction Concentration Planning Aim My aim in this part of the coursework is to find whether or not the rate of reaction increases when the concentration of a reaction is increased. I must produce a piece of coursework investigating the rates of reaction, and the effect different chances have on them. The arte of reaction is the arte of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. It is measured by dividing 1 by the time taken for the reaction to take place. There is five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area, catalyst and concentration. ...read more.


When the temperature was 300c and 500c the time taken increased. This may have been due to many reasons. Improvements, which could have been made: * Could have started with a lower temperature. * Use pure magnesium filings to increase surface area and increate the rate of reaction, which should give a greater variation between concentration; this will give a better result for the temperature experiment. * Make sure that non-oxidised magnesium strips are used to give more accurate results. * Control the temperature of the surrounding by encasing each experiment to prevent any changes in temperature at the start of the reaction to the end of the reaction form affecting the experiment. Extensions that can be carried out after the investigation After this experiment was done, I had realised that I could have taken the following points under consideration to make it a better investigation: * More concentrations of acid could be used to see if they have similar affects on the temperature rise. * Different substances could be reacted to see if they behave similarly. * More repeats could have been carried out to qualify the findings. These could be done under different conditions to see how the reactions react under a colder or hotter environment. Inaccurate results During the experiment we can see that many results were wrong and did not fit the line of best fit. There are some reasons to why they may have gone wrong: * When doing the experiments there is an internal energy that may have affected the results. This is known as Enthalpy. When we heat the sulphuric acid we measure the temperature not the internal energy. It is very hard to control and measure the Enthalpy. The internal energy measures the amount of heat present inside the chemical compound. * When doing the temperature experiment convection in the sulphuric acid affects the water current. There is a chance that the reaction could go faster or slower. * When doing the surface area experiment the sizes of the calcium carbonate chips were not the same. This may have affected the results. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry Coursework - How the concentration effects the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate ...

    The evidence and results that were collected obviously proved correct as they supported my conclusions. There were obviously some experimental errors throughout the investigation but these would have been unable to control, such as the temperature of the room, this could increased or decreased at any given time but luckily did not raise any concern during the experiment.

  2. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric ...

    can be used to measure the volume of acid. I can also try to monitor and keep my control variables as constant as possible to increase the reliability of my experiment.

  1. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Method 3 was not feasible as the scales we had available were not accurate enough for our experiment. Also, there was too little a change in mass to be able to draw a conclusion. Whilst the equipment we used did what was required, there was one key change in equipment which could have improved the accuracy of our results.

  2. Experiment to Investigate the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate, with ...

    This is shown by the positive correlation of the rate against concentration graphs. As all my results did not fit perfectly into a curve of straight line I had to construct lines and curves of best fit. The reason why the results were not perfect is that the experiment was

  1. Determining the Enthalpy Change of the Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate.

    (H2 = (H2 + (H3 (H3 + (H2 = (H2 (H3 + (- 69.9) = - 13.9 (H3 = -13.9 + 69.9 (H3 = 56 Kj mol -1 This result shows that this reaction is endothermic. Evaluation The enthalpy change for the reaction CaCO3 (s)

  2. Finding the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction of magnesium ribbon with ...

    These inaccuracies were expected, as not every experiment can be accurate to a decimal place, although the results are accurate when rounded up to two significant figures. The graph that was obtained from the results contrasted accurately with the predicted graph and gave a similar rate of reaction.

  1. Investigation of the effect of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the rate of ...

    The reason I chose 10secs to be my reading is that it showed the initial rate of reaction, which was the part of the reaction that is mainly affected by concentration. As I was working by myself this method was not only more practical but easier as well as some

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between Magnesium Ribbon and Hydrochloric Acid.

    I increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid then the number of acid atoms will be greater and so the chance of one of these atoms colliding with a magnesium atom will be higher and so the rate of reaction should be higher. My prediction has therefore been proved right.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work