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Respiration and Gaas Exchange Notes

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Introduction

´╗┐Respiration and Gas Exchange Respiration: respiration is NOT breathing in and out, respiration is what happens in each cell of the body, it is the process of releasing energy from glucose and the energy is released as chemical and heat energy. Aerobic Respiration needs plenty of oxygen: It only happens when there is a plentiful supply of oxygen and is the most efficient way to release energy from glucose. Glucose + Oxygen ? Carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2 ? 6CO2 +6H2O (+ energy) Anaerobic Respiration doesn?t use Oxygen at all: when you are doing vigorous exercise your body can?t get enough oxygen in at the rate it?s being used so you start to respire anaerobically. If the lactic acid builds up in muscles it?s painful. Glucose ? Lactic Acid (+ energy) Anaerobic respiration in plants is slightly different, plants can respire without oxygen too and they produce ethanol (alcohol). ...read more.

Middle

In the day photosynthesis is happening so carbon dioxide is diffusing in while oxygen is diffusing out from respiration. In the night the plant only respires so it takes in oxygen through diffusion and releases carbon dioxide like humans. Leaves are adapted for efficient gas exchange. 1. Leaves are broad so a large surface area for diffusion. 2. They are thin so gases only have to travel short distances to the cells where needed. 3. There are air spaces I.e. the spongy mesophyll so it increases the surface area for gas exchange. 4. Stomata closes when it dark as photosynthesis doesn?t happen in the night so doesn?t need carbon dioxide. This stops water from leaking out stopping the plant from becoming dry. 5. The opening and closing of stomata is controlled by the guard cells around the stomata. Once again we can use hydrogen carbonate to test from CO2. Because plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis they use it up, so the hydrogen carbonate will display the fact carbon dioxide levels have run out by turning purple. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the blood reaches the body cells oxygen is release from the red blood cells and diffuses into the body cells. At the same time carbon dioxide is diffusing out into the blood and its carried back to the blood. Specialised Alveoli There are millions giving an enormous surface area alveolus There is a moist lining for gas to dissolve The alveoli have one cell thick wall so the gases don?t have to diffuse far They have a constant blood supply to keep a high concentration gradient The walls are permeable so gases can easily diffuse http://www.p-h.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Normal-Lungs-and-Breathing-3.png Smoking Tobacco can cause problems for you!!!! It damages the alveolus decreasing surface area so less gas is diffused in and out making you breathless easier The tar in the cigarettes damage the cilia in your throat by making them create a lot of mucus so more chest infections Tar irritates the bronchi and it encourages mucus which can?t be cleared by the damaged cilia Carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen that blood can carry so heart rate increases and you can get heart disease Cancer. ...read more.

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