• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The advantages and disadvantages of bacteria

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The advantages and disadvantages of bacteria The advantages of bacteria for genetic Engineering are firstly economic- they contain a valuable source of enyzmes Bacteria produce more enzyme molecules in relation to their mass than most other organisms. The product yield can be increased by means of strain selection, mutation and optimisation of growth conditions. They are easy to manipulate genetically and can be subjected to gene transfer techniques. Secondly there is an environmental/economic advantage of bacteria- they can occupy a great variety of habitats and extremes of conditions, so their enzymes function in an enourmous range of PH and temperature. ("A New Introduction to Biology") Environmentally the bacteria used in genetic engineering chosen do not produce toxins or offensive odours and are non-pathogenic. ...read more.

Middle

By inhibiting Streptococcus mutans that convertsugar to lactic acid and slowly etch away the enamel on teeth. (http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99991941) The technicalogical applications of bacteria are advantageous. The enzymes contained in different bacteria can be used in the dairy industry- extracellular lipase is used to ripen blue chesses from mould e.g Penicillum roguefortii. The production of cheese by separating milk into curd and whey may be achieved by the addition to the milk of the enzyme rennet or by the addition of a bacterial culture. Also In the ripening process, micro-organisms, most commonly lactic-acid-producing bacteria, act on the cheese to produce the desired body and flavour. (The Oxford Interactive Encyclopedia) ...read more.

Conclusion

Many people especially on the grounds of religion think it is immoral to "play God" by the use of modified bacteria. (http://www.biology-online.org/2/13_genetic_engineering.htm). The enzymes in the bacteria are highly sensitive to changes in the physical and chemical environment surrounding them- environmental disadvantage. They may be denatured by even a small temperature rise and change in pH. This means that the conditions in which they work must be stringently controlled. In particular the enzyme-substrate mixture must not be contaminated with other substances that might affect the reaction so the equipment used must be scrupulously clean- this is time consuming, so an economic disadvantage. In conclusion it seems that bacteria have more advantages than disadvantages and they may well lead to positive developments in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Living Things in their Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Living Things in their Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology- enzyme coursework

    4 star(s)

    Increasing the temperature increases the rate of the reaction up to a certain temperature; this temperature is known as the enzyme's optimum temperature, different enzymes have different optimum temperatures. If the temperature is increased beyond the optimum the enzyme has so much kinetic energy that the bonds holding the enzyme molecule together start to vibrate and eventually break.

  2. Using the streak plate method, compare the effect of two different brands of toothpaste ...

    I tried to keep the toothpaste as neat as possible and avoided spilling it over the sides. I then incubated all twenty plates for another twenty four hours. Bacillus stereothermophilus was incubated at 50�C because this was its optimum temperature. After the incubation process I had to measure the results.

  1. Introduction to bacteria

    Antibiotics are used to treat disease caused by bacteria or to prevent these diseases from occurring in the first place. The following list gives important antibiotics produced by bacteria. Penicillin is not on the list because it is produced by a fungus called Penicillum chrysogenum.

  2. The comparison of bacterial content in a range of milks.

    (due to the fact that the majority of the fat has been removed by separating and standardizing before the pasteurization process). Hypothesis Fresh pasteurized milk will contain a higher number of bacteria than the newly opened UHT milk and the pasteurized milk will spoil at a faster rate than the UHT milk.

  1. Can areas where accidental contamination with petroleum products be efficiently bioremediated and which bacteria ...

    Photograph-I and II shows the flasks of enrichment experiment The degradation of phenol was tested by using colorimetric method using 4-Aminoantipyrine and Potassium Ferricynide under alkaline condition. (reference-Standard methods for water and wastewater analysis APHA- American public health association publications).

  2. Investigating the effect of four antibiotic agents on gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

    > Protein synthesis inhibitors These target activities occurring at the ribosome. There are no known antibiotics that interfere with amino acid activation or attachment to a tRNA. > Nucleic Acid Effectors These attack the DNA or RNA of a cell, preventing DNA synthesis and blocking the natural growth of the cell.

  1. Culturing Bacteria.

    to prevent condensation gathering on then lid and dropping onto the agar. The inoculating loop must then be placed in the flame again to re-sterilise. Certain methods are better for separating out individual colonies of bacterium. This is particular important when a mixture of different bacteria are present and one

  2. The main aim in the life science lessons is to learn how to handle ...

    Bacteria can be culture in three different medias in the laboratory. In solid medias (LB agar), liquid media (LB broth, nutrient broth, glucose broth etc.) and semisolid media (use to study the movement of bacteria). In these activities, we will use LB agar to culture our bacteria.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work