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The aim of this experiment is to find out how much diluteHydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise 25cm of alkali.

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Introduction

Neutralisation Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how much dilute Hydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise 25cm of alkali, which is Called sodium hydroxide. Apparatus: * Beaker * Burette/ stand * Conical flask * Safety goggles * Hydrochloric acid * Measuring cylinder * pH chart * polystyrene cup * small funnel * sodium hydroxide * universal indicator Method In this experiment, I had to first add 25cm of sodium hydroxide and then add a few drops of universal indicator. In the experiment, I had to use universal indicator because whilst neutralising the solution with the universal indicator you can see the colour of the sodium hydroxide changing. When you first put the universal indicator in the sodium hydroxide the colour will be a mix of blue and purple. Next, I added the hydrochloric acid in the burette and noted where the acid was starting. In this experiment, I will have to record the pH, temperature and the volume of the acid. Whilst putting the acid in it a better to put the to put it in slowly, so that you get the correct result (put about 0.1cm each time) because then you can see the colour change more accurately. You will know when the alkali is neutralised because the alkali would have changed to the colour green. ...read more.

Middle

Volume of acid added in cm Colour of universal indicator pH Temperature (?C) 2.0 Purple 14 21.1 10.0 Purple 14 28.3 20.0 Purple 13 29.8 22.0 Purple 13 32.1 22.5 Purple 13 32.4 23.0 Navy Blue 12 32.5 23.5 Navy Blue 12 32.5 23.8 Navy Blue 12 32.5 24.0 Navy Blue 12 32.6 24.5 Navy Blue 12 32.5 24.6 Navy Blue 12 32.5 24.8 Navy Blue 12 32.5 24.9 Navy Blue 11 32.5 25.0 Navy Blue 11 32.6 25.2 Navy Blue 11 32.5 25.4 Navy Blue 11 32.5 25.6 Navy Blue 11 32.5 25.9 Navy Blue 11 32.5 26.0 Navy Blue 11 32.5 26.1 Navy Blue 10 32.4 26.3 Navy Blue 10 32.4 26.4 Navy Blue 10 32.4 26.6 Blue 9 32.3 26.7 Blue 8 32.3 26.8 Green 7 32.2 26.9 Yellow 6 32.1 27.0 Orange 4 32.1 Result table: Second experiment In this experiment, there was also seven drops of universal indicator used. Volume of acid added in cm Colour of universal indicator pH Temperature (?C) 2.0 Purple 14 26.2 10.0 Purple 13 29.4 20.0 Navy Blue 12 32.1 22.0 Navy Blue 12 32.2 22.5 Navy Blue 12 32.2 23.0 Navy Blue 12 32.2 23.5 Navy Blue 12 32.4 23.8 Navy Blue 12 32.2 24.0 Navy Blue 11 32.2 24.5 Navy Blue 11 32.2 24.6 Navy Blue 11 32.1 24.8 Navy Blue 11 32.1 24.9 Navy Blue 11 32.0 25.0 Navy Blue 10 32.1 25.2 Navy Blue 10 32.1 25.4 ...read more.

Conclusion

When we were reading the burette, it was quite difficult to get the exact point. When we did the experiment, the temperature was different to the day we had done the second experiment so this might have affected the temperature of the solution in the cup. Whilst I was plotting the graph, I noticed that there were some anomalies (points that are left out of the curve of best fit). the reason I think there were some anomalies is because as I said before I was doing the experiment next to a window which could have affected the temperature of the solution causing inaccuracy in the results. You can see this on the graph and the point which were not included I have circled. I had done this experiment 3 times because the first time I had done it I kept adding too much acid so the results were incorrect, but the other two experiments I did more correctly and put less acid each time. In the first experiment, I used a 100cm measuring cylinder that didn't help me to get exactly 25cm of alkali, but in the second experiment, I then used a 25cm measuring cylinder that gave me a more accurate reading. In the end of the experiment, I found out that to neutralise the alkali you needed to add about the same amount of acid. I also found out that the temperature increases when I was neutralising the alkali and the temperature decreased when the alkali was already neutralised. 1 ...read more.

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