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The aim of this experiment is to find the concentration of a sample of limewater solution in g dm3.

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Introduction

Chemistry Plan The aim of this experiment is to find the concentration of a sample of limewater solution in g dm3. I am required to design my own experiment and choose a range of appropriate equipment and apparatus. I am provided with 250 cm3 of limewater, which has been made such that it contains approximately 1g/dm3 of calcium hydroxide. Also available is hydrochloric acid which has a concentration of 2.00 mol dm3, this concentration is too much though so it is necessary to dilute it. The apparatus, equipment and chemicals that I will use are as follows: - 1) Pipette 25cm3 2) Volumetric flask 500cm3 3) Conical flask 250cm3 4) Burette 5) White tile 6) Clamp and stand 7) Indicator (methyl orange) 8) Limewater (250cm3 with approximately 1g/dm3 of calcium hydroxide) 9) Hydrochloric acid- standard solution (conc. 2.00 mol/dm3) 10) Distilled water Slaked lime dissolved in water is called limewater. ...read more.

Middle

That is why I have chosen the pipette, volumetric flask and burette. All of these instruments have an accuracy of �0.05cm3, which is suitable for my experiment and should produce accurate and reliable results. In making my choice of indicator I also had to be very careful. The Limewater used will be a relatively weak base so it will be appropriate to use methyl orange as it has an end point on the ph scale between 8-5. Whereas phenolphthalein indicator has an end point much higher up in the ph scale. So if I were to use the phenolphthalein indicator then the end point (colour change) would be reached before the equivalence point (when the chemicals, acid-base break up). Implementing Safety is very important and it is necessary to follow safety procedures. It is important to wear eye protection when working with any acid. Also long hair should be tied back. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the indicator is added the colour of the solution is light, clear, orange and this should turn to pink by the end of the titration. In order to obtain consistent and reliable results it is necessary to repeat the experiment 3 times at a minimum and if the results were not in 0.1 of each other then further experiments would be needed. 0.1 is the figure that I have used as it is the accuracy of the burette. After this it the results must be noted in a table complete with the correct units. Using these results we first apply this formula Number of moles= concentration*volume(dm3) to the Hcl as we know its amount and concentration so can work out its number of moles. We then look back at the balanced equation and see the reaction ratio. In this case it is 2 moles of Hcl to 1mole of Ca(OH)2. So we times this number by 2 and we have the number of moles of limewater. ...read more.

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