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The aim on my investigation is to find the percentage of citric acid present in lemon squash by using a method of neutralisation, by a method of titration and volumetric analysis.

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Aim: The aim on my investigation is to find the percentage of citric acid present in lemon squash by using a method of neutralisation, by a method of titration and volumetric analysis. I will be using sodium hydroxide as an alkali, which will be neutralising the citric acid. Background Knowledge: Titration Titration is a technique for investigating the volume of solutions that react together. One solution is placed in a burette and slowly added to a fixed volume of another solution, usually measured with a pipette, until the end point of the reaction is shown using an indicator. Salts can be made by this method by repeating the titration between an acid and alkali using previously measured quantities without using the indicator. Citric acid Citric acid is the acid present in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons. It is commonly used to add a 'tang' to fruit drinks and lemonades. Mixed with sodium hydrogencarbonate (commonly knows as bicarbonate of soda) and sugar, it becomes sherbet. Its chemical formula is H3 (C6H5O7). In this investigation I will be working out the percentage of this acid in lemon squash using titration Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid is a mineral acid. The concentrated acid is a 35% by weight solution hydrogen chloride in water. ...read more.


4) Pipette filler- I will fill the pipette with this, it is like a sucker on the top of the pipette. 5) Conical flask- this is where the reaction will be occurring; the acid will mix with the alkali. 6) Lemon squash- this is the acid solution that I am going to neutralise. 7) Sodium hydroxide- this is the alkali I am going to use to neutralise the acid. 8) Clamp stand- the burette is too long to stand upright on is own and so I am going to use the clamp stand as a support for the burette. 9) Beakers- will store the acid and alkali until I need them. 10) White tile- this will make it easier to see the change in colour of the solution. 11) Distilled water- this will be needed to rinse the beakers and other apparatus. 12) Safety glasses- will be needed to stop any splashes of the acid or the alkali getting to my eyes. 13) Funnel- the top of the burette if narrow and so to make it easier to pour the alkali into the burette the funnel will be used, this will also reduce the likeliness that the alkali will spill or overflow. ...read more.


citric acid in lemon squash= mass of citric acid x100 25cm3 Doing this I will be able to workout the percentage of citric acid in lemon squash. Results: The results to my investigation will be recorded on a table like the one below. Titration number. Trial Accurate 1 Accurate 2 Accurate 3 Final burette reading (cm3) Initial burette reading (cm3) 0 0 0 0 Volume of NaOH added (cm3) If I have more time I will make more columns to include more readings. I will carry out a rough titration to see roughly where the colour will begin to change. So then next time when I perform the accurate readings I would know where I would have to slow down. And where it changes colour, I will record it on the table. In this way the results would be more accurate. Measurements: During the investigation I will be taking a few measurements, The volume of sodium hydroxide will be measured in cm3; this is a volume. And the volume of citric acid will also be measured in cm3. Predicted graph: Below is a graph on my predicted results, it is a straight line this show that the results are accurate. Rajesh Patel, 0175 Page 1 of 12 Chemistry coursework Finding the percentage of citric acid in lemon squash Skill P: Planning skill ...read more.

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