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The Chemical Bond

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Introduction

The Chemical Bond Ionic Bonds An ionic bond is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms. Normally, atoms are neutral and have NO CHARGE. However, in order to gain stability they will lose their neutrality by either losing one or more of it's outermost electrons so it will become a positive ion (cation) or they will gain one or more electrons so they will become a negative ion (anion). Elements that are described, as "metallic" tend to lose electrons and elements that are known as "non-metallic" tend to gain electrons. Once this has happened, then the resulting charged atoms will attract each other. That electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions is referred to as an ionic bond. Most salts are ionic. Any metal will merge chemically with any non-metal to form ionic bonds that hold the molecule together. Polarity of the Ionic Bond Because the bonding electrons are literally under the domain of the non-metal in an ionic bond, the bond is said to be polar. Polar bonds generate a dipole moment. A dipole moment is an electrical force that is generated because of the unequal distribution of the bonding electrons between the two bonded atoms. ...read more.

Middle

The atom with the higher electronegativity will attract the bonding electrons closer to itself. As a result, the electron distribution will be unequal and a bond dipole moment will be formed. For example the single bond between a Hydrogen and a Chlorine as in H-Cl will have the bonding pair closer to the higher electronegative atom (Chlorine). As a result the Chlorine end will be partially negative since the electrons are closer to the Chlorine. The hydrogen end will be partially positive since the bonding pair is further from the Hydrogen. This two pole condition is called a dipole and it generates a dipole moment. Co-ordinate bonding (Dative covalent bonds) A Covalent bond is formed by two atoms sharing a pair of electrons. The atoms are held together because the electron pair is attracted by both of the nuclei. In the formation of a simple covalent bond, each atom supplies one electron to the bond - but that doesn't have to be the case. A dative bond is a covalent bond (a shared pair of electrons) in which both electrons come from the same atom. Example: THE REACTION BETWEEN AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. If these colourless gases are allowed to mix, a think white smoke of solid ammonium chloride is formed. ...read more.

Conclusion

* London dispersion forces. * Hydrogen bonding forces. Typically, dipole-dipole and dispersion forces are grouped together and termed VAN DER WAALS forces (attractive force between molecules, which is caused by the induced temporary polarisation of molecules by the dipole moments of molecules). Attractive forces between neutral and charged (ionic) molecules. Ion Dipole forces Note that all of these forces will be ELECTROSTATIC in nature. Ion Dipole. * Involves an interaction between a charged ion and a polar molecule (i.e. a molecule with a dipole). * Cations are attracted to the negative end of dipole. * Anions are attracted to the positive end of a dipole. * The magnitude of the interaction energy depends upon the charge of the ion (Q), the dipole moment of the molecule (u) and the distance (d) from the center of the ion to the midpoint of the dipole. * Ion dipole forces are important in solutions of ionic substances in polar solvents (e.g. a salt in aqueous solvent) Ion dipole-dipole forces A Dipole-Dipole force exists between neutral polar molecules. * Polar molecules attract one another when the partial positive charge on one molecule is near the partial negative charge on the other molecule. * The polar molecules must be close to one another for the dipole-dipole forces to be significant. * Dipole-dipole forces are characteristically weaker than ion-dipole forces. * Dipole-dipole forces increase with an increase in the polarity of the molecule. ...read more.

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