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The effect of concentration, on the rate of reaction.

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The reaction that I will test the effect of concentration on is: Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + water + Carbon carbonate acid chloride dioxide Ca2+CO32-(s) + 2H+Cl-(aq) Ca2+Cl2-(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) In order for this reaction to work the ions must all collide together with adequate force. The particles in calcium carbonate, in the form of marble chips, are held together by electrostatic attraction. The H+ ions and the Cl- ions in the acid (HCl) collide with the marble chips and break the bonds of calcium carbonate and the Cl- ions form a new bond with the oppositely charged Calcium to form Calcium Chloride. The 'Carbonate' is broken down into oxygen, which forms with the H+ ions forming water, and carbon dioxide is released. The rate of reaction depends on how many successful reactions there are. How long it takes to collect 100cm of carbon dioxide is used to test the effect of concentration of the rate of reaction. Why HCl? Hydrochloric acid was used because it is a strong acid. HCl is an acid that completely ionises in solution to give lots of H+ ions. HCl H+ + Cl- The more H+ ions in solution the stronger the acid. The more H+ ions there are the more successful collisions there will be so the reaction would proceed long enough to measure the amount of gas produced. ...read more.


Using the formula: Concentration = Vol of HCl x molarity (1 molar) Initial Vol of HCl Vol of HCl (cm3) Vol of Water (cm3) Concentration (mol/dm3) 50 0 50 x 1 = 1 50 40 10 40 x 1 = 0.8 50 30 20 30 x 1 = 0.6 50 20 30 20 x 1 = 0.4 50 10 40 10 x 1 = 0.2 50 The results will be put in the table shown below: Concentration (mol/dm3) Time taken to collect 100cm3 of CO2 (secs) Rate of reaction 1/Time (secs-1) 1 2 Average 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Then with the results graphs will be plotted, the graphs below is what they should look like: The experiment was done twice and the results are shown in the table below: Concentration (mol/dm3) Time taken to collect 100cm3 of CO2 (secs) Rate of reaction 1/Time (secs-1) 1 2 Average 0.2 830 831 830.5 1.20 x 10-3 0.4 415 423 419 2.39 x 10-3 0.6 254 251 252.5 3.96 x 10-3 0.8 166 172 169 5.92 x 10-3 1 161 155 158 6.33 x 10-3 The results show clearly that as the concentration increases the rate of reaction increases. With the results the graphs shown in the 'strategy for dealing with results' are drawn. ...read more.


The possible things that could have gone wrong in this experiment are listed below: * The bung might not have been on tight enough, * The gas syringe might have been sticky and damp, * The bung might not have been on quick enough, and because the reaction is fast of the beginning, some CO2 may have been lost, * The size off the marble chips varied because it was very hard to get ones all the one size, * It was hard to put the bung on and quickly start the stopwatch. All the other points on the graph are good and this suggests the experiment was done very accurately: * Burettes were accurate to 0.1cm3, * Stopwatch was accurate to 1sec, * Gas syringe was accurate to 1cm3, * Electronic balance was accurate to 0.01g. The following things could be done to improve the experiment and make the results more accurate: * If the experiment were done more times then the averages would be more accurate, * If a wider range of concentrations were used, The instruments used in this experiment were very precise. The main problem is trying to get the bung on very quickly without any CO2 being lost. To make this better a side arm cronical flask could be used. The following is a diagram of how this could be used: ...read more.

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