• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (marble) Chips.

Extracts from this document...


CONTENTS PAGE PLANNING 2 INTRODUCTION 2 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE 2 The collision theory 2 Diagrams to show the particles reacting in a high concentration level and a low concentration level of hydrochloric acid 3 PREDICTION 5 THE EXPERIMENT 5 The outline of the plan 5 Measurments 6 Fair Test 6 Apparatus 7 Diagram to show the setup of appartus 7 Safety 7 Method 8 OBTAINING EVIDENCE 9 INTRODUCTION 9 Results Table 9 Tables to show the results obtained from the effects of different concentrations on marble chips on the varied rates of reaction. 9 Table of results to show the set of averages processed from each experiments concentration results. 10 Graph - Showing the rate of reaction from differnet concentrations 10 ANALYSING AND CONSIDERING EVIDENCE 11 The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (marble) Chips Planning Introduction This investigation is to obtain a set of reliable results and a strong conclusion, of the effects from different hydrochloric acid concentrations, reacting on small calcium carbonate chips; measuring the rate of reaction of which carbon dioxide is produced as a product. My primary aim is to find the change in reaction rate when the concentration is increased. Below is a balanced word and symbol equation of this reaction and its products, between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate: CaCo3 (s) + 2HCL (aq) --> CaCL 2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Hydrochloric acid + Calcuim Carbonate --> Calcuim Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide There are many factors which can influence the rates of a chemical reaction: temperature, surface area, use of a suitable catalyst and concentration. The rate of a chemical reaction can be followed by measuring the rate of which the products are formed on the rate at which the reactants are used up, and in this case by recording time in seconds. Chemical reactions can also occur at diffenet speeds depending on their factors and their enviroment. ...read more.


The reaction rate, however, should decrease as the experiment progresses because as the reaction time increases the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present will decrease as they have been reacted to form water calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. The additional water and calcium chloride present as the experiment progresses should decrease the rate of reaction because of decrease in concentration. This should make a graph of the reaction curved as the reaction rate slows down. The increase in the concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of the reaction rate at a given time. This is because by doubling the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present the chance of a collision should be doubled, as there is now twice the possibility of a collision-taking place initially. This can be thought of as like people in a refined space, if there are twice the number of people there will be twice the chance of people colliding. The Experiment The outline of the plan - We have chosen to investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction by using an appropriate approach, through the use of previous experiments, accurate measuring, and a good designed layout to collect and produce precise and reliable evidence and results to show how concentration affects a solid or surface area. - We will make sure our method is safe by following safety procedures carefully - I have explained what I think will happen in this experiment by using scientific knowledge in my prediction and justified my thoughts. - To produce reliable evidence by making all measurements as accurate as possible and repeat these experiments. - To make this a fair test I will control the variables I am not investigating and to find these values I have carried out preliminary experiments, which show the highest rate of reaction is gained from higher use of any factor. The following headings show how the experiment was conducted, apparatus used, what variables remained the same, what measurements were taken to measure the rate ...read more.


Below is the table to show the averages gathered: Table of results to show the set of averages processed from each experiments concentration results. Concentration of hydrochloric acid (cm ) Concentration of distilled water (cm ) Averages from both experiments - Time (seconds) 100 0 13.5 75 25 22 50 50 26.5 25 75 77.5 0 100 0 Graph - Showing the rate of reaction from differnet concentrations On the next page viewed will be the result graph, to see any anomalies in the averages obtained from both sets of results. The line of best fit will show how fast the rate of reaction occurred, depending on the rate of reaction, if my prediction is correct the line will be a curve and will increase as the concentration gets higher. Along the 'x' axis will show the amount of hydrochloric acidity concentration level, and along the 'y' axis will show the time in seconds how long the reaction took to displace 80cm of water when producing carbon dioxide. This graph will show the rate of reaction from the effects of different acidic concentration on marble chips, and records through a different medium the averages obtained, allowing a suitable range of reliable evidence to be viewed and analyzed. Analysing and considering evidence Introduction The evidence obtained shows that the higher the level of acidic concentration the faster the rate of reaction of which a product is produced. My method was conducted successfully as it was proved from the graph, that the highest concentration of 100cm compared to the lowest concentration of 25cm of hydrochloric acid would create a faster rate of reaction in producing carbon dioxide as a product. The pattern of ascending values on the graph proves that my prediction was accurate from the preliminary evidence used in the planning. I stated that as the concentration became stronger the carbon dioxide would be produced at a faster rate and would produce a curved graph. 1 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is a good experiment write up which is let down by the lack of a meaningful analysis and considering evidence section. For an introduction and scientific information on the collision theory it is excellent. But overall 3 stars.

Marked by teacher Louise Star 21/06/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Rate of Reaction Chemistry Coursework

    4 star(s)

    make sure that I keep it a fair test - We use the measuring cylinder to measure 5ml of the hydrochloric acid, the measuring cylinder is good as it is easy to get the most accurate measurements that you need.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

    4 star(s)

    I don't think it is necessary to have the experiment go over three minutes, so I will cut it off then. Also, if the amount of gas goes off the scale I will stop it there. It is important to keep the starting temperatures constant for all the reactions as

  1. Free essay

    Chemistry Rate of Reaction Coursework for Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

    other methods, like for example timing and observation, where the reliability depends on the quality of eyesight, which is never 100% accurate and will vary with different individuals. In other terms, there's less dependence on human ability, which can easily cause an error.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Rates of Reaction

    5 star(s)

    These are: 1) Temperature increases the number of collisions When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they're moving quicker, they're going to have more collisions. Temperature: in a cold reaction mixture the particles are moving quite slowly. This means that the particles will collide with each other less often,

  1. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    This is because the particles retain the same outer area as the larger particle(s) but as the larger particle(s) are broken up new sides become available. Only the molecules on the surface of the solid reactant can take part in the reaction at the time- the molecules below the surface,

  2. The reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid.

    Therefore if concentration is increased, the reaction rate also increases. Amount of the reactants -It is important to keep the amount of reactants constant in the experiment because as the reactant is used up, so the reaction is slowed down.

  1. Investigation on how long a candle burns under a glass beaker.

    We will place the candle onto the safety mat and light it. Carefully, one of us will cover the lit candle with the beaker, whilst the other shall start the stopwatch. As soon as the candle goes out the stopwatch shall be stopped, measured and the result will be recorded into the results table.

  2. The aim of the investigation is to examine the kinetics involved in the reactions ...

    Using the information about collision theory and activation energy, it is possible to make some predictions regarding the outcome of the experiment. If the temperature is increased in the reaction, this will in turn increase the percentage of molecules containing activation energy (EA), therefore the particles will be carrying an increased amount of kinetic energy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work