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The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (marble) Chips.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CONTENTS PAGE PLANNING 2 INTRODUCTION 2 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE 2 The collision theory 2 Diagrams to show the particles reacting in a high concentration level and a low concentration level of hydrochloric acid 3 PREDICTION 5 THE EXPERIMENT 5 The outline of the plan 5 Measurments 6 Fair Test 6 Apparatus 7 Diagram to show the setup of appartus 7 Safety 7 Method 8 OBTAINING EVIDENCE 9 INTRODUCTION 9 Results Table 9 Tables to show the results obtained from the effects of different concentrations on marble chips on the varied rates of reaction. 9 Table of results to show the set of averages processed from each experiments concentration results. 10 Graph - Showing the rate of reaction from differnet concentrations 10 ANALYSING AND CONSIDERING EVIDENCE 11 The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (marble) Chips Planning Introduction This investigation is to obtain a set of reliable results and a strong conclusion, of the effects from different hydrochloric acid concentrations, reacting on small calcium carbonate chips; measuring the rate of reaction of which carbon dioxide is produced as a product. My primary aim is to find the change in reaction rate when the concentration is increased. Below is a balanced word and symbol equation of this reaction and its products, between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate: CaCo3 (s) + 2HCL (aq) --> CaCL 2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Hydrochloric acid + Calcuim Carbonate --> Calcuim Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide There are many factors which can influence the rates of a chemical reaction: temperature, surface area, use of a suitable catalyst and concentration. The rate of a chemical reaction can be followed by measuring the rate of which the products are formed on the rate at which the reactants are used up, and in this case by recording time in seconds. Chemical reactions can also occur at diffenet speeds depending on their factors and their enviroment. ...read more.

Middle

The reaction rate, however, should decrease as the experiment progresses because as the reaction time increases the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present will decrease as they have been reacted to form water calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. The additional water and calcium chloride present as the experiment progresses should decrease the rate of reaction because of decrease in concentration. This should make a graph of the reaction curved as the reaction rate slows down. The increase in the concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of the reaction rate at a given time. This is because by doubling the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present the chance of a collision should be doubled, as there is now twice the possibility of a collision-taking place initially. This can be thought of as like people in a refined space, if there are twice the number of people there will be twice the chance of people colliding. The Experiment The outline of the plan - We have chosen to investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction by using an appropriate approach, through the use of previous experiments, accurate measuring, and a good designed layout to collect and produce precise and reliable evidence and results to show how concentration affects a solid or surface area. - We will make sure our method is safe by following safety procedures carefully - I have explained what I think will happen in this experiment by using scientific knowledge in my prediction and justified my thoughts. - To produce reliable evidence by making all measurements as accurate as possible and repeat these experiments. - To make this a fair test I will control the variables I am not investigating and to find these values I have carried out preliminary experiments, which show the highest rate of reaction is gained from higher use of any factor. The following headings show how the experiment was conducted, apparatus used, what variables remained the same, what measurements were taken to measure the rate ...read more.

Conclusion

Below is the table to show the averages gathered: Table of results to show the set of averages processed from each experiments concentration results. Concentration of hydrochloric acid (cm ) Concentration of distilled water (cm ) Averages from both experiments - Time (seconds) 100 0 13.5 75 25 22 50 50 26.5 25 75 77.5 0 100 0 Graph - Showing the rate of reaction from differnet concentrations On the next page viewed will be the result graph, to see any anomalies in the averages obtained from both sets of results. The line of best fit will show how fast the rate of reaction occurred, depending on the rate of reaction, if my prediction is correct the line will be a curve and will increase as the concentration gets higher. Along the 'x' axis will show the amount of hydrochloric acidity concentration level, and along the 'y' axis will show the time in seconds how long the reaction took to displace 80cm of water when producing carbon dioxide. This graph will show the rate of reaction from the effects of different acidic concentration on marble chips, and records through a different medium the averages obtained, allowing a suitable range of reliable evidence to be viewed and analyzed. Analysing and considering evidence Introduction The evidence obtained shows that the higher the level of acidic concentration the faster the rate of reaction of which a product is produced. My method was conducted successfully as it was proved from the graph, that the highest concentration of 100cm compared to the lowest concentration of 25cm of hydrochloric acid would create a faster rate of reaction in producing carbon dioxide as a product. The pattern of ascending values on the graph proves that my prediction was accurate from the preliminary evidence used in the planning. I stated that as the concentration became stronger the carbon dioxide would be produced at a faster rate and would produce a curved graph. 1 1 ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is a good experiment write up which is let down by the lack of a meaningful analysis and considering evidence section. For an introduction and scientific information on the collision theory it is excellent. But overall 3 stars.

Marked by teacher Louise Star 21/06/2013

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