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The Effects of the Wolf Reintroduction on the Coyotes of Yellowstone

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Introduction

´╗┐XXXXXX The Effects of the Wolf Reintroduction on the Coyotes of Yellowstone XXX-XXXXXXXX X/XX/XX Table of Contents Cover page????????????????????????????????1 Table of Contents??????????????????????????...???2 The Habitat and Niche of the Coyote????????????????????3-4 Food web????????????????????????????????.?.5 Relationships of the Coyote?????????????????????????6 Limiting Factors and Carrying Capacity???????????????????..7 The Affect?????????????????????????????????.8 ________________ Habitat: The natural home of a plant, animal, or other organism. Niche: The status of an organism within its environment and its community. Habitat of the Coyote: The coyote?s habitat can be pretty much anywhere. They can live in forests, plains, or in deserts. When they are forced out of their homes by humans they can easily find new places to live and hunt. They only need prey and a lot of water. They usually don?t stay in the same place for long, and have been known to kill an animal for its shelter and food. In Yellowstone, their habitat is mostly snow. The snow can be problematic for them as they weigh too much to walk across the top. They have everything they need in Yellowstone; they have enough small prey and enough kills to scavenge from as well as places to live, even just temporarily. http://www.tonynewlin.com/Winter_Itch.html Resources of the Coyote?s Niche: The coyote mostly eats small mammals like voles, but they will eat larger prey such as deer. ...read more.

Middle

Intraspecific: Coyotes often hunt alone. Other coyotes in the area can easily use the same area for hunting, thus causing competition. They don?t usually come in contact with each other, but the less food will eventually make the less fortunate one leave the area and the competition for that area is gone. Parasitic Relationships: Parasitic Relationship: A relationship in which one organism (the parasite) benefits from another organism (the host) at the host?s expense. The coyote has several parasites. These include: mite, ticks, and fleas. They all cause very minor affects on the coyote and they don?t kill their host. In this relationship, the coyotes are the host and they mites, ticks, or fleas are the parasites because they are benefiting from their host, who suffers. Commensalism Symbiotic Relationship: Commensalistic Relationship: A relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not harmed, but they also don?t benefit. A raven is a scavenger like the coyote. When not flying, they ravens will take shelter in the trees. This is commensalism because the raven gets shelter, but nothing is done to the tree, be it good or bad. Mutualistic Symbiotic Relationship: Mutualistic Relationship: A relationship in which both organisms help one another for mutual benefit. The American Badger and the Coyote have a mutualistic relationship. ...read more.

Conclusion

In 50 years, the ecosystem will become almost unrecognizable from what it is today. The wolves will take over the spot of top predator which will make the other animals such as deer or elk a large target for them. Without them to eat the vegetation, the vegetation will grow more. The smaller animals that eat the vegetation will gain a lot of food which will make their populations rise. Since the coyote will have to compete with the wolves for food like deer and elk, they must turn to scavenging or eating smaller prey, even scavenging can be difficult for them as the wolves still pose a threat to them if they try and eat from their kill. The area will no longer look how it is today. The plants will probably be more widespread and the small animals that eat it will benefit. With the wolves as the top predator the larger prey will slowly lose its population, yet another way the plants will benefit. The smaller animals will be all over the place because their predators don?t have a large source of food, due to the wolves? competition. The area will most likely have a lot more vegetation than it does now, so the coyotes will have a harder time finding their small prey. The changes will mostly make the lives of the small animals and the larger predators easier at the expense of the predators in the middle. ...read more.

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