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The Rate of Reaction Between HCl and Mg

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Introduction

Chemistry Sc1- The Rate of Reaction Between HCl and Mg Aim To investigate the affect on the rate of reaction by changing a factor of the experiment. Introduction When hydrochloric acid and magnesium react, the hydrochloric acid will dissolve the magnesium and produce hydrogen gas. All chemical reactions involve reactants which when mixed together may react to leave a product. In this case, the reactants are magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The reaction occurs when the magnesium is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The equation for this experiment is: Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric acid (aq) � Magnesium Chloride (aq) + Hydrogen (g) Mg + 2HCl � MgCl2 + H2 The magnesium will react with hydrochloric acid, because it is higher in the reactivity series that hydrogen. When the two chemicals react, a displacement reaction will take place and the magnesium will displace the hydrogen in the hydrochloric acid forming magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Therefore, the products of the reaction are magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. The factors that may affect the rate of reaction are: * Temperature of the Hydrochloric acid * Mass of the magnesium ribbon used * Concentration of the Hydrochloric acid * Surface area of the magnesium ribbon used All of these factors will change the rate of reaction because of the Collision Theory. ...read more.

Middle

1.0M is double the concentration of 0.5M and 2.0M is double the concentration of 1.0M. We will only be using a measuring cylinder to measure out the volume of acid to use and we could improve the accuracy of the experiment by using a syringe. The heat given off during the reaction may be a problem too, because the higher the concentration of acid, the more heat is given off which will mean the reaction occurs even quicker. However, the heat given off during the reaction in relation to the concentration of acid will be the same for each experiment so the results should not be affected. Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration of the acid, the higher the rate of the reaction will be. This is based on the Collision Theory. The higher the concentration of acid, then the higher the concentration of acid particles there will be in a certain volume. This will mean that the higher the concentration of acid, the more the successful collisions there will be in 1 second. Therefore, the rate of reaction increases. Results Concentration Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Time 5 Average 0.0M No Reaction No Reaction No Reaction No Reaction No Reaction No Reaction 0.5M 90.32 83.46 84.49 87.05 86.61 86.39s 1.0M 42.29 44.11 42.77 43.62 43.75 43.31s 1.5M 26.61 25.57 27.16 27.59 29.47 27.28s 2.0M 23.03 19.65 23.75 19.11 ...read more.

Conclusion

However my conclusion was more detailed than my prediction in stating by how much the rate of reaction increased with a certain concentration of acid. Evaluation Our method to obtain the results went well because it was accurate and the consequence was that we could draw reliable graphs. The results were reliable and quite accurate and there were no anomalous results. The only slightly off point on the graphs was for 4.0M. This may have been because the heat produced from the reaction sped it up more in relation to the other concentrations. The procedure was suitable for the results we wanted to obtain because it was quick, fair and quite accurate. Although, the results were excellent, they were not perfect. Some of the reasons for this may be: * When the reaction takes place, bubbles of H2 are given off, which might stay on the magnesium, therefore reducing the surface area of the magnesium so the acid cannot react properly so this affects the results. * There may have been some slight human error when stopping the stopwatch. The results helped to give a firm and reliable conclusion and it would have been hard to improve them. However, to improve the experiment, we could use a computer to time the reaction. We could also carry out the experiment with HCl of higher concentrations than 4.0M and repeat the various concentrations still further, although I feel that for this experiment, five times was sufficient. ...read more.

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