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To find out what changes of the pH take place when a base is neutralizing an acid.

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Introduction

Subject: Chemistry Objective: To find out what changes of the pH take place when a base is neutralizing an acid Introduction: Bases are substances which accept hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution. They react with acids, which release hydrogen ions. When they react, the base is neutralizing the acid. Examples of bases are Ammonia and limewater. I am going to find out what happens to the acidity of the solution when an acid is being neutralized by a base. The acidity or alkalinity of an acid can be described using a pH scale. When a universal indicator is put into the acid, it will change different colour according to the acidity of the solution. You can find out the pH when you find the correspondent colour in the pH chart. The pH range lies from 0 to 14, an acidic solution has a pH below 7, and a basic solution has a pH above 7. A neutralised solution has a pH of 7. ...read more.

Middle

Pour 20cm3 of vinegar into the beaker 2. Add 20cm3 of water to the vinegar 3. Stir the mixture with a glass rod 4. Cut a piece of Universal Indicator paper into six strips 5. Place the strips on a white tile 6. Use the glass rod to place a drop of the vinegar solution on a strip of the indicator 7. Add a spatula measure of lime to the beaker 8. Stir the mixture 9. Remove the glass rod 10. Place a drop of the mixture on another strip of indicator paper 11. Keep adding spatulas of lime until there is no further change in the colour of the indicator paper Results: PH 1 PH 3 PH 7 PH 8 PH 10 PH 11 PH14 PH14 Discussion: What does the experiment show? The experiment shows that the pH is getting higher and higher when more lime has been added. In a pH scale, the solution is getting more and more alkali when the pH is increasing. The more lime added, the more the acid is being neutralized. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even one spatula measure of lime is added every time; there will be errors as we don't weigh the amount of lime added every time. Also, we don't know how much lime needed to move the pH by 1 every time. Conclusion: The experiment proves the change in the pH when a base is neutralizing an acid. The pH number is increasing when the neutralization takes place, because the solution is originally acidic, but turning to be neutral and then alkali, when a base is added. The chart below shows a pH scale. In my previous results, the pH number is from the left side, which is red, but change of colours are moving to the right, turning to be neutral when lime has been added. When more lime is added, the neutral solution will have a higher pH number, turning to be alkali. The colour change is moving from the left to the right during neutralization, so the pH number is increasing. So the colours are turning from red to green, then green to purple. Strongly Acidic Strongly Alkaline pH1 pH14 Errors and Improvements: ...read more.

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