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To Investigate how changing the concentration Affects the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium

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Introduction

To Investigate how changing the concentration Affects the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid will have on the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Background Information "What is 'rate of reaction'? The rate of a reaction is the speed of the reaction. It is not "how much" of a product is made, but instead "how quickly" a reaction takes place Chemistry for You There are five variables that affect the rate of reaction, and could be changed throughout the experiment. They are: * Concentration * Catalyst * Surface area * Temperature * Pressure * The size of the particles Concentration Concentration will only be discussed because the investigation is solely investigating the concentration of hydrochloric acid and magnesium. The other factors are not going to be investigated, and therefore do not need to be looked into with detail. As concentration is the main factor, I will go into further detail about it. The concentration of a solution is how strong the solution is. In a less concentrated acid, the number of collisions is low, so the rate of the reaction is slower. This is because the less concentrated an acid is, the more neutralised it becomes. Bonds are being shared which means that the covalent bonds have less ions to share. ...read more.

Middle

* Make sure that excess acid is not used. Method * Collect the apparatus: o Magnesium strips o Hydrochloric acid (2M) o Ruler o Pipette o 250ml Beaker o Paper Towels o Distilled Water o 100ml Measuring Cylinder o Stopwatch * Measure HCL in measuring cylinder. Start with 10ml of it. * Add 90ml of distilled water, so it makes the solution 100ml * Pour it into a 150ml beaker * Cut many magnesium strips to measuring at 2cm, so they are equal size. * Label the beakers 0M, 0.4M, 0.8M , 1.2M , 1.6M , 2M * Drop the magnesium strip into the 150ml beaker vertically. * Start the stopwatch as soon as the magnesium hits the hydrochloric acid * Stop timer when the reaction finishes. * Record timed results. * Rinse out the beaker and dry it with paper towels. * Repeat the experiment but use 20ml of HCl and 80ml of distilled water. Preliminary experiment Before conducting an experiment an initial concentration table was made. The concentration table as shown below shows how much of HCl and water was needed. The initial plan of the investigation was to use 100ml of solution; however the total volume of the solution has been changed to 50ml. This has been changed as when the preliminary test was carried out, 10ml of HCl and 90ml of distilled water took too long. ...read more.

Conclusion

This therefore meant that the measuring cylinder was not perfectly clean, which means that it would have left residue from the previous experiment. This would have affected the results in such a way that it might not have been too concentrated. However, this is only an observation as I cannot comment on this error affecting the entire set of results. A way to avoid this could have been to use new measuring cylinders or to rinse out the measuring cylinders. The con in this is that there isn't a lot of equipment to be wasted, and in addition rinsing the measuring cylinder would have made it less concentrated. These faults could explain the anomalous results I had. The results were only slightly anomalous, and in this experiment could be used as the investigation does not need to go into thorough detail, and the results helped justify the prediction and conclusion. To improve the investigation, accurate measuring cylinders would be used, and an accurate method of measuring the time taken to react would be found. A greater range of readings could be recorded and put into a graph. Another thought of furthering the investigation could be to investigate other variables/factors, such as varying the temperature, or increasing the surface area of the magnesium ribbon. To determine the reliability of the results, other ways of editing the investigation could be considered. They could be to stir the beaker with a glass rod - this helps initiate the reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Tej Soor ...read more.

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