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To investigate how one variable affects the rate of reaction

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Introduction

GCSE Chemistry Coursework Rates of Reaction Aim: To investigate how one variable affects the rate of reaction Tom Anderson Year 10 KBY Rates of Reaction Coursework To investigate how one variable affects the rate of reaction Background Information: The rate of a reaction is the speed at which reactants react to form a product. If there is a low rate of reaction it means that the molecules have less energy and therefore react at a slower speed. If there is a high rate of reaction it means that the molecules have a large amount of energy therefore react at a faster speed. There are a number of variables that affect the rate of reaction, they are: * Concentration * Temperature * Surface Area * Catalysts * Pressure Rates of Reactions are explained by the collision theory (reference 1): "For two substances to react, their particles must collide together. Every time such a collision occurs there is the chance of a chemical reaction. Anything that increases then number of collisions taking place will increase the rate of reaction"(reference 1) Concentration: The more of a substance in a solution the higher the chance that molecules will collide and speed up the rate of the reaction. If there is less of a substance there will be fewer collisions and the reaction will happen at a slower speed. ...read more.

Middle

After thoroughly cleaning the conical flask I will carry on in this manner but every time I will reduce the Sodium Thiosulphate by 5cm3 and increase the amount of Water by 5 cm3, the only liquid that will never be decreased or increased is Hydrochloric Acid this will always be 10cm3. I will put my results in a table like this: Cm3 of Sodium Thiosulphate Cm3 of Water Reading 1(Min/Sec) Reading 2(Min/Sec) Reading 3(Min/Sec) Average (Min/Sec) 30 0 25 5 20 10 15 15 10 20 5 25 Table 1 - Showing how long it takes for the X to disappear as the concentration of the solution is diluted with water. To make sure that my experiment is a fair test so the results are precise, I will: * Take three readings for each reaction * I will also take an average for each reaction * I will keep each reactant in different beakers to avoid contamination. * Clean or use a different conical flask each time to avoid contamination. If I keep to these guidelines I should have accurate results and have completed a fair test. To ensure a high level of safety in my experiment I will ensure that: * Everyone in my group will wear safety goggles during the experiment. * All bags will be kept out of the way; I will ensure this by putting them under the desk. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Use a more scientific way of finding when the reaction is complete, such as: using a light source and detector to get a more accurate reading of when the experiment has ended. d) Addition Information If I measured the temperature of the solution when the reaction was taking place I could find out if the reaction is Exothermic or Endothermic. All of results are based on using small quantities of reactants, if I were to repeat the experiment with larger quantities of reactants and smaller quantities. This would be useful so I could see I if I got similar results and if the formula works on larger/smaller quantities. Conclusion From my results I have proven the collision theory to be correct. "For two substances to react, their particles must collide together. Every time such a collision occurs there is the chance of a chemical reaction. Anything that increases the number of collisions taking place will increase the rate of reaction"(Reference 1) This is shown in all my Tables and Graphs when the percentage of the Sodium Thiosulphate is 75% the rate of the reaction is smallest but when the percentage of the Sodium Thiosulphate is at its lowest, 12.5% the rate of the reaction is largest. This is because: "The more of a substance there is in a solution the a higher the chance that molecules will collide and speed up the rate of the reaction. If there is less of a substance there will be fewer collisions and the reaction will happen at a slower speed. ...read more.

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