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To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate.

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Introduction

An Nguyen 11P EXPERIMENT TO SEE HOW SURFACE AREA WILL EFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION Aim To investigate how surface area effects the rate of reaction in Calcium Carbonate. Theory This experiment is working on the theory of diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles. Three main things effect the rate of diffusion: - The distance of particles. Diffusion is quickest in gases as gas has a larger space between molecules making diffusion occur faster. - The energy of particles. The temperature effects the rate of reaction because the higher the temperature the faster the reaction. - The mass of particles. The effect of mass is caused by the relationship between the speed of particles and their temperature. Diffusion occurs in all the states of matter. However they most noticeably take place in liquids and gases. An example of this is Brownian Motion. Robert Browning noticed that when looking under a microscope pollen grains were moving in a random way. This movement is explained by assuming water molecules were hitting the pollen grains in a random way causing the pollen to move erratically. Brownian motion and diffusion provide evidence to support the kinetic theory. ...read more.

Middle

4. Repeat steps 1-3 with 10g of calcium carbonate and 40ml of hydrochloric acid. 5. Repeat steps 1-3 with 15g of calcium carbonate and 60ml of hydrochloric acid. Results 5g and 20ml of hydrochloric acid-Fast reaction and not very vigorous. 10g and 40ml of hydrochloric acid-Long reaction and very vigorous. 15g and 60ml of hydrochloric acid-Long reaction and quite vigorous. Conclusion: This pre-test showed me that the best results to use in my investigation would be 10g and 40ml of Hcl. This was because this was the most vigorous and the longest results without wasting too much Hcl and Calcium carbonate. Evaluation This pre-test was quite accurate. There was only one problem, acid was loss to the spitting I will use cotton wool to cover the top. The reason I will not use a cork stop is this will prevent all gas escaping. I will use wool because this will let gas escape but not acid. Prediction I predict that the large marble chips are going to take the longest to diffuse. The medium a fair amount of time to diffuse and the smallest chips will be the quickest to diffuse. ...read more.

Conclusion

- To rectify this I will observe more carefully when to start the timer. * The cotton's mass was not taken and deducted at the end. - I should next time take the mass of the cotton * Hydrochloric acid was not measured out properly. - I could maybe weigh the amount of hydrochloric acid used on some electronic scales. * Lots of people were in the room and were all walking about. People could have knocked the table causing the mixture to be swirled around a bit. Making the results slightly unfair. - I could possibly of done the experiment in a quite room on my own without distractions and lot's of people walking about knocking the table. * The Calcium carbonate chips were not all the same size. - When choosing the chips I could of looked for similar sized chips to use so surface area was still the same. However even with these factors taken into account the experiment gave me my expected results. So I presume that these flaws in my experiment did not really effect the results. To further on my work I could look at how a catalyst would effect the rate of reactions. I could also look at all the other factor such as temperature and concentration and how they effect the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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