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To investigate how temperature has an effect on the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation Investigating the factors which affect the rate of a reaction Aim: To investigate how temperature has an effect on the rate of a reaction. Diagram 1 - Apparatus for experiment: Hypothesis: I think that when the temperature of the hydrochloric acid is increased, the rate of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and magnesium will increase. This is because when the temperature of the acid is increased, the atoms in the acid move faster gaining more kinetic energy. This increases the impact energy when the atoms in the acid collide with the magnesium atoms, providing enough energy to overcome the activation energy, this is the minimum amount of energy required for a product (Magnesium Chloride) to form. Increasing the temperature will also increase the number of collisions per second between the magnesium and hydrochloric acid atoms, creating more opportunities per second for the reaction to occur which will also lead to a higher rate of reaction. For these reasons I expect my final graph to look like the one below which shows that as temperature increases the rate of reaction increases. Balanced Equation Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Method 1. Measure out 50cm� hydrochloric acid using a burette to gain an accurate reading. ...read more.

Middle

In my experiment the rate of reaction increases when the acid is heated because the acid ions and magnesium molecules move faster and are more likely to collide with each other giving the opportunity for a reaction to take place. Also, at higher temperatures, the faster movement of the acid ions and molecules of magnesium gives them increased kinetic energy which means that when they do collide there is more chance that their combined energy will be enough to overcome the activation energy needed to create magnesium chloride, see Diagram 2 below. Diagram 2 - Activation energy for the reaction of magnesium and hydrochloric acid Both these effects of increased temperature act to give a higher reaction rate which agrees with my hypothesis. Variation of Results and Reliability The reliability of the results is dependent on the method used, the accuracy of the equipment used to carry out the measurements (ruler, stop clock, burette) and the care taken in making readings and setting up equipment. If the experiment were repeated I would expect to get similar results although there may be some variation due to equipment set up and lab temperature. There are two suspected anomalous readings in my results from this investigation taken in the first set, for the temperatures of 53�C and 62�C see Table 1 and Graph 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would give a rate of reaction which could be measured for different temperatures and this set of results could be compared to the results from this experiment. Although this is a more complicated method there is no need to determine the exact end of the reaction so one of the main causes of errors with my original method is removed. Diagram 4 - Alternative method for measuring the rate of reaction by measuring the rate of hydrogen production Further Research This experiment could be repeated with a wider range of temperatures for the acid, more readings would give us a better indication of the relationship between temperature and rate of reaction. The experiment could also be repeated with different shapes of magnesium, cubes, spheres, pyramids etc. to investigate how different ratios of surface area to volume for a given mass of magnesium affect the rate of reaction. I would expect that as the surface area to volume ratio increases for a given mass the reaction rate would increase as there will be more of the surface of the magnesium in contact with the acid. The experiment could be repeated with different concentrations of acid this would show us how the reaction rate varies with acid concentration for a given temperature. Rebecca Allott 10J Page 1 03/05/2007 ...read more.

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