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To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Aim - To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction - To investigate the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium Prediction 1) -I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the faster the time will be for the magnesium to dissolve. 2) -I predict that the higher the molar of hydrochloric acid, the more hydrogen gas will be given off. 3) -I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the faster the rate of reaction. This will therefore mean that the rate of reaction will be faster. 4) - I predict that when I double the concentration, I would expect the rate of reaction to double with the concentration. Reasons Rates of Reaction measures different reaction rates and tells us things that affect the speed of a reaction. Seven factors that affect how fast a reaction takes place are: - Temperature - Catalyst - Pressure - PH - Surface area - Concentration - Light We can change speeds of reactions in three ways- - Increasing the surface area - Increasing concentration - Raising the temperature - Adding a catalyst There are three ways to measure the speed of a reaction and these are precipitation, change in mass and the volume of gas given off. The four things that are suitable for the magnesium reaction to affect how fast it takes place are - - Temperature - Turbulence - Concentration - Surface area Concentration is the best factor to for this magnesium and hydrochloric acid reaction because it is easy to undertake. ...read more.

Middle

We will then cut a 4 cm piece of magnesium ribbon to be used in the experiment. 2) We will then measure the 50 cm of 1 mol dm hydrochloric acid. I will then measure this using the measuring cylinder. I will then pour the hydrochloric acid in to the flask. 3) I will then arrange the equipment in the way shown in the diagram of the experiment. When I have set the equipment appropriately, I will add the 3 cm piece of magnesium to the flask. The magnesium strip should now start to react rigorously with the hydrochloric acid. I will then replace the bung as quick as possible to avoid the loss of hydrogen gas. At this point I will start the stopwatch. 4) When the magnesium has totally stopped reacting, I will stop the stopwatch. I will then record the time and the volume of hydrogen gas given off in the reaction. 5) I will then repeat the experiment using different molars of hydrochloric acid. The different molars I shall use are 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0. For each molar, I will the experiment 3 times. 6) After completing the experiment, I will clear up the work area. I will also wash up the dirty glass area and wash up the water basin. Results Concentration (dm ) Volume of HCL Magnesium Strip 0.1 dm 25 ml of acid 4 cm strip 0.5 dm 25 ml of acid 4 cm ...read more.

Conclusion

To improve our investigation in the future we could have used a logiests data logger. This would have helped us to achieve more accurate results in the investigation. In my investigation, there were a few abnormal results when compared to the overall average. For the 0.1 concentration the result was 3325.8, however the average time for 0.1 concentration was 3427.3. This means that the result is abnormal because the reading is not equal to the average time. For the 0.5 concentration the result was 510.4, however the average time for the 0.5 concentration was 532.3. This means that the result is abnormal because the findings are not equal to the average time. For the 1.0 concentration the result was 79.2, however the average time for 1.0 concentration was 70.69. This means that the result is abnormal because the reading is not equal to the average time. For the 3.0 concentration the result was 12.5, however the average time for 3.0 concentration was 11.81. This means that the result is abnormal because the findings are not equal to the average time. I think that the abnormal results were caused by either wrong measurements of hydrochloric acid or the inability to view when the magnesium strip had dissolved. This would mean that the results would be higher or lower than the average time result. When we completed our experiment, we could have investigated further by experimenting with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid or different lengths of magnesium. This would have given us a wider range of results. ...read more.

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