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To Investigate the Effect that the Concentration of Acid has on a Reaction

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Introduction

-Experiment- To Investigate the Effect that the Concentration of Acid has on a Reaction between HCl and MCl Introduction: The reaction that I am investigating in this experiment is the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The equation for this experiment is shown below: 2HCl + Mg MgCl2 + H2 What I actually will be investigating is the effect that the concentration of Hydrochloric acid has on the rate of reaction. To start off with the concentration of HCl which will be used is 4 molar. But to do the experiment I will have to use 8 different concentrations of the hydrochloric acid, and try the experiment 8 different times using a same-size piece of magnesium ribbon but different concentrations of the acid. The concentrations of the acid that I am going to be using are : 4.0m, 3.5m, 3.0m, 2.5m, 2.0m, 1.5m, 1.0m, and 0.5m. In this experiment I will be using magnesium ribbon as a reactant along with hydrochloric acid. Magnesium is a highly reactive metal, which is pretty high in the reactivity table for metals. What I will be investigating in this experiment is to try and find out weather or not there is any correlation between the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid and the rate of reaction. I will be using 8 different concentrations of the acid, which are shown above. A piece of magnesium ribbon will be dropped into the acid solution and the time it takes for the ribbon to completely disappear will be recorded using a stopwatch. Because this reaction is between an acid and a metal then there will be two main products formed which will be a salt and a gas. In this case the salt produced is Magnesium Chloride and the gas produced is hydrogen! Acid + Metal Salt + Gas Hydrochloric + Magnesium Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Acid This reaction is an Exothermic Reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Collision theory is the name given for the amounts of ions, which collide in a certain reaction. This explains that if there are more ions in a solution then there will be more collisions between the ions in the solution and more collisions between the reactants in that reaction. This is because the ions are closer together and there is more of a chance that they will collide with other ions in the solution. Apart from increasing the amount of ions in a solution (increasing the concentration), there is another way in which the collisions between ions can be increased! This is by giving the ions already in the solution more energy. We must consider what happens when a reaction takes place. First of all the particles of the reacting substances must collide with each other, and secondly a fixed amount of energy called activation energy (Ea.) must be reached if the reaction is to take place. If the particles can produce the right amount of energy (i.e. if they collide fast enough and in the right direction) a reaction will take place. The reaction is speeded up if the number of collisions is increased. This energy is heat, when heat is added to the experiment it increases the energy in the ions, which makes them move around in the solution a lot faster. This means that the ions will collide more frequently and more vigorously increasing the rate of the reaction and the amount of collisions in the reaction. This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the reactants have been mixed; i.e. they are both at their highest concentrations. As the reaction continues, the concentration of the reacting substances decrease and so does the rate of reaction. The higher the concentration of HCL you use, the less time it takes for the magnesium to disappear and so the rate reaction increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would mean that the average would be more accurate and that the results would be fairer because any anomalous results would be counted out because the results would be averaged to get the final set of results. This would also have implications on the conclusion, which could be slightly wrong because of the inaccuracy of the results! Maybe the rate of reaction was proportional to the concentration of the acid but because of the inaccuracy of the results it might not have been shown that the results actually are proportional to one another. These are all things that I could do to improve the accuracy of the experiment. Another thing which would increase the accuracy of the results, although not dramatically would still add to the accuracy and fairness of the experiment would be to keep the beaker with the reacting solution in it in a water bath which would be kept at the same temperature throughout the whole experiment, this would ensure that there would be no change in the temperature of the solution. A change in temperature could have happened whilst the experiment was taking place so this water bath idea would account for any temperature changes and get rid of them. These three factors bellow could also effect the fairness and accuracy of the results I obtained but I could do nothing to change them. 1) When the reaction takes place bubbles of H2 are given off, which might stay around the magnesium which therefore reduces the surface area of the magnesium and so the acid cannot react properly so this effects the results. 2) We could have controlled factors in the investigation better (e.g. the stirring of the solution because if this isn't done properly it can lead to incorrect results). 3) Using larger concentrations of acid would give a bigger more accurate conclusion instead of just using 10ml test tubes use 1litre test tubes, this way graphs would be more spaced out and give an accurate form or curve Chemistry Coursework Completed By: - Colin Stuart Form 11-2 Colin Stuart 11.2 ...read more.

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