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# To investigate the factors that affect rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Coursework Kelly Waites Rate Of Reaction Aim My aim is to investigate the factors that affect rate of reaction. Theory The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. The rate can be determined by the speed with which one of the reactants is used up or the speed that one of the products is made. Time is a critical factor in the rate of any reaction. There are a number of factors that affect the rate of a reaction. These are: . Surface area . Concentration . Temperature Effect of surface area Small pieces of solids, especially powder, react faster than large pieces. Surface area is measured of how much surface is exposed. As we increase the surface area, we increase the rate of reaction. For example, a nail. Only the iron atoms on the surface can react. If you cut the nail up, more iron atoms are exposed and ready to react: Collision Theory All substances are made up of particles. The particles might be atoms, molecules or ions. Before we can get a chemical reaction two particles must collide effectively. This is when a collision results in the formation of product molecules. The reaction rate is a measure of how frequently effective collisions occur. The more collisions between particles in a given time, the faster the reaction. This explains why an increase in the concentration of reactants will tend to lead to an increase in the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Trial Run Below is a results table showing our first trial run of our plan of action so I can see if anything needs changing. Concentration g/dm3 Time (s) 2 molar 1.6 molar 1.2 molar 1 molar 0.8 molar 10 29 13 10 6 3 20 43 33 23 12 5 30 70 47 36 18 7 40 83 64 48 20 10 50 100 78 60 32 12 60 100 93 71 36 15 70 100 100 80 44 20 80 100 100 85 49 21 90 100 100 91 51 23 100 100 100 95 58 25 110 100 100 100 64 29 120 100 100 100 68 31 130 100 100 100 71 35 140 100 100 100 72 38 150 100 100 100 74 40 These results do follow the pattern predicted so I will not change my plan of action for the real experiment. Apparatus . 5 measuring cylinders to measure out the different concentrations . Water . 2 molar acid . syringe to measure the gas produced . 5 lots of small marble chips each weighing 2.5 grams . Electronic weighing scales to weigh out the marble chips . 5 beakers to hold the marble chips . Rubber tube with a cork attached to capture the gas produced . A phial to hold the marble chips with the acid whilst reacting . Stop clock to take readings every 10 seconds Fair Test I will make sure it is a fair test by rinsing out the phial after each reaction has taken place so the next lot of marble chips won't start reacting before the experiment begins. ...read more.

Conclusion

Due to human error the gas may have leaked out through the tube whilst we were trying to read from the syringe resulting in us reading more then what we should have. With all this taken into account I have concluded that although my results follow the patterns and trends predicted they aren't very accurate. If I was to do the experiment again then I would have the same amount of marble chips as well as the same weight as this would make the surface area more accurate. I would also do the experiments all in one day so that the temperature would be roughly the same. Also I would probably use a different method of tracking the mass instead of displacement. I would do this because although displacement is very clear and simple, it can also be very inaccurate and is read through the human eye, whereas mass loss would be done with a machine and would be extremely accurate. I have found no anomalous results as each graph follows the trends and patterns expected. My graphs clearly illustrate that my theory was correct. The collision theory in particular as this was the factoral that we were changing (concentration). The higher the molarity the more particles there were in the same volume of water so the faster the reaction. As you can see from my graphs that the higher the molarity went the faster the gas was produced. Conclusion In conclusion the experiment went very well and I have proved that my theory was correct and that my results are reliable. You can see this from the graphs present. ...read more.

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