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To investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

To investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid Planning Background information In this experiment, the two reactants are calcium carbonate, CaCO3, a solid at room temperature, and hydrochloric acid, HCl, an aqueous solution. The following reaction occurs between them: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) A reaction occurs when particles collide. If the particles do not collide or do not collide with sufficient force, no reaction occurs. The rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction takes place. It depends on how quickly and with how much force the particles collide. As the collisions increase in number, force, or both, the rate increases and the reaction occurs more quickly. After years of extensive experimenting, scientists have found that the rate of reaction depends on four factors, and that the rate increases when: 1. The temperature of the reaction is increased. An increasing temperature means that particles have more energy and so move at a faster rate and with greater force - increasing both the frequency and the force of collisions, and therefore increases the frequency of collisions where the particles have sufficient activation energy to break the initial bonds. 2. The concentration of a reactant in the solution is increased, or the pressure of a gas is increased. ...read more.

Middle

does occur, there are further instructions on the Hazard Cards. Preliminary Experiment Table of Results - Preliminary Results Initial Temperature of HCl (?C) Final Temperature of HCl (?C) Average Temperature of HCl (?C) Time Taken (secs) to produce 100 cm3 of CO2 20.5 20.0 20.0 49 33.0 31.5 32.5 28 40.5 38.0 41.5 20 52.5 49.0 51.0 13 61.5 58.5 60.0 9 74.5 70.5 72.5 7 80.0 71.0 75.5 7 Graph of Preliminary Results See next Page Analysis of Results There was no need to change the range of variables, as the fastest reaction time (with a high temperature), was not too short, and the slowest reaction time (with a low temperature), was not too long either. One change that will have to be made is that in the preliminary method, the time taken to produce 0-100 cm3 of CO2 was recorded, but it was difficult to start the timer to exactly coincide with the very beginning of the production of gas, and so 10-100 cm3 will be recorded instead. Therefore 90 cm3 of gas will be produced, not 100 cm3. I found this preliminary experiment satisfactory although the measurements are not extremely accurate due to the problem of 0-100 cm3, but the results produced are consistent - i.e. as the temperature increases, the time taken decreases, and the points on the graph are close to the line of best fit. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Gas Syringe This would produce more accurate volumes of gas, and would be suitable if the was to be cooled before measuring, as the gas would not escape. Evaluating the Results The variables other than temperature were kept as constant as possible throughout the experiment, providing good results: * The concentration of the HCl was constant throughout. * The concentration of the CaCO3 changed throughout the experiment, but at the same rate in each measurement. * The surface area of the CaCO3 was kept as constant as possible (see above). * The volumes of reactants were kept as constant as possible using the available apparatus (see above). By using temperature as a variable, my results were more accurate than other members of my class who were changing the concentration. This was due to the changing temperature on different days, and the fact that the reaction is exothermic, so temperature increases throughout the experiment. This worked to my benefit as it counteracted the heat lost during the production of gas, and reduce the gap between initial and final temperatures. There are enough results collected to provide a firm conclusion, and they all conform. The range covered was large enough, especially due to the extra measurement obtained at 16.0?C, as shown by the consistent line on the graph. When considering the repetitions made as well, which were very similar throughout, it is possible to conclude that the results in this experiment are reliable. If repeating the experiment, another set of repetitions would increase support for this statement. Expanding Experiment Grace-Marie Smith 1 ...read more.

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