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To show that different variables can change the rate of reactions e.g. make them faster or slower.

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Introduction

Rates of Reactions. Aim: - To show that different variables can change the rate of reactions e.g. make them faster or slower. Theory: - That changing the variables in a reaction such as concentration, temperature and surface area will increase or decrease the rate of reaction. This would happen because, if you changed the concentration of a solution to a higher concentration the rate of reaction would increases, as there are more particles in the solution which means the particles would collide more. As they are colliding more, particles collide with the other substance making the reaction time much farter and greater. Low Concentration = Slower Reaction High Concentration = Faster Reaction Less Particles More Particles Equipment:- Chronicle Flask Measuring Cylinder Gas syringe Beaker Calcium Carbonate Stopwatch Pestle and Mortar Boss and Clamp Hydrochloric Acid Clamp stand But and Tube Measuring Scales Safety: - As acid and Bunsen's may be being used safety goggles should be worn at all times and all hair tied back. ...read more.

Middle

After you have decide and carried out this put the calcium carbonate into the chronicle flask. Then decide if you will change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, to weaken the solution add water to strengthen the solution add more hydrochloric acid. When the chosen concentration has been made add this to the calcium carbonate. As soon as the hydrochloric acid has been added to the calcium carbonate put the but on which is connected to the Gas Syringe and begin timing. Time how long the gas syringe takes to reach a certain point or points e.g. take a reading at 5ml then 10ml then 15ml...etc. Then do another experiment changing the variables. It is advised to do each experiment more the n once to take an average, but all depends on the amount of time given. Results: - in this experiment the surface area was changed and the calcium carbonate was grinded up into small chips. ...read more.

Conclusion

Weakening the solution means there were less particles in the solution meaning less collisions with the calcium carbonate slowing the reaction time down. The experiment was not entirely fair as when the acid was pored into the chronicle flask to react with the calcium carbonate there was a slight pause before the gas syringe was connected. Meaning some of the gas given off could escape into the atmosphere; this could be overcome by taking the experiment in an air tight container such as a vacuum so no gases could escape. Doing this will make the readings very accurate proving more that changing certain variables will change the outcome of the rate of the reaction. The experiment also could have been more accurate by taking more readings and then making an average. Also more variables could have been changed to promote different outcomes such as changing the surface area for each reading, instead of using small chips each time we could have used powder, small chips and the large chips for each experiment. Doing this giving more proof that different variables change the outcome of the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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