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UK Department of Health Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)

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Introduction

Task 1 UK Department of Health Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) are a daily calorie intake of 1940 calories per day for women and 2550 for men. Since most adults in the UK lead a sedentary lifestyle, these figures apply to adults with low activity levels. Factors that affect your personal daily calorie include your age, height and weight, your basic level of daily activity, and your body composition. To maintain healthy eating the following table shows how much of each carbohydrates, proteins and fats are need. The energy that is released by the macronutrients can be measured in calories, a measure of energy. Both carbohydrates and protein contain four calories per gram, whereas fat contains nine calories per gram. Carbohydrates 55% or more of total calories with * Complex starches -50% or more * Sugar/Added sugars- Less than 5% * Including 5 portions per day of fresh fruit and vegetables Protein Around 15% total calories Fats No more than 30% of total calories with * Saturated fat - less than 10% * Monounsaturated fat - 10/15% * Polyunsaturated -around 10% * (Ultra-fit magazine vol.13 no.6 p 41) Taking this as our guide for an average male who needs approximately 2550 calories, they would need to consume 55% of 2550 kcal = 1402 kcal divided by 4, which is 350g carbohydrates per day. ...read more.

Middle

as glucose but is arranged in a different order. (Adopted from Stafford-Brown et al) Hooking two monosaccharides together forms a more complex sugar, such as the union of glucose and fructose to give sucrose, or common table sugar. This is done by a Glycosidic bond - "A type of covalent chemical bond that joins two simple sugars via an oxygen atom. The bond may be either above the plane of the ring as in a beta glycosidic bond or below the plane as in an alpha glycosidic linkage." (Quote from http://www.sparknotes.com/nutrition/carbohydrates/section1.html) It can also be called a dehydration synthesis. This name is derived from the fact that a water molecule is lost from the two chemicals that join together. The reverse of this process is called hydrolysis. For example when you drink a sweet cup of tea the sucrose is broken down by acids in the stomach to form glucose and fructose. Condensation Reaction resulting in Glycosidic Bonds in Maltose (http://www.sparknotes.com/nutrition/carbohydrates/section1.html) Compounds such as sucrose are called Disaccharides (two sugars). Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in water. Dehydration synthesis also results in the formation of polysaccharides. These are long chains made up of three or more monosaccharide. "poly" means many, and polysaccharides are examples of polymers being a chainlike molecule made up of sub-units or smaller molecules. Because of their size, these are often times not soluble in water. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some fats are saturated, while others are unsaturated .These terms refer to the presence or absence of double bonds in the fatty acids of fats. Saturated fats have no double bonds, whereas unsaturated Fats contain one or more such bonds. In general, plant fats are unsaturated and animal fats are saturated. (www.mbarnes.dircon.co.uk) Task 5 (www.sparknotes.com) Pure water is practically colourless and it has no taste or smell. The chemical formula of water is H2O. There is one atom of oxygen attached to two hydrogen atoms. The two hydrogen atoms are bound to one side of the oxygen atom. This results in the water molecule having a positive charge on the side with the hydrogen atoms, leaving the other side of the oxygen atom negatively charged. Since opposed electrical charges attract each other, water molecules also have a tendency to attract each other, which is why water forms drops. (Stafford-Brown et al) Water can be found in three states * solid * liquid * gas The human body is two-thirds water. Water is an essential nutrient that is involved in every function of the body. It helps transport nutrients and waste products in and out of cells. It is necessary for all digestive, absorption, circulatory, and excretory functions, as well as for the utilization of the water-soluble vitamins. It is also needed for the maintenance of proper body temperature. BIBIOGRAPHY Stafford-Brown, J. Rea, S. Chance, J. sport and exercise science 2003 hodder and Stoughton Ultra-fit magazine www.sparknotes.com www.mbarnes.dircon.co.uk www.althealth.co.uk/services/info/misc/rda1.php www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk www.weightlossresources.co.uk ...read more.

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