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What affects the rate of a reaction? The reaction I will be investigating is the reaction of marble chip (Calcium carbonate) with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Aim: I am going to find out what factors affect the rates of reaction. The reaction I will be investigating is the reaction of marble chip (Calcium carbonate) with hydrochloric acid. Balanced Chemical Equation! Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Variables: The speed of a reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other, the theory is that particles have to collide in order to react; also they have to collide with enough energy to make the reaction happen, this is called the activation energy. The individual factors that affect the rate of reaction are; Temperature, Catalyst, Surface area, and Concentration. Temperature work by, at the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker, this means there will be more collisions, because of the increase in speed the collisions are going to be of greater force making it more likely that there will be a reaction and a form of new products; well this is the theory. A catalyst works by giving the reacting particles a surface to stick to where they can bump into each other; this in theory should increase the number of collisions. Surface area is an important factor in rate of reactions because if one reactants is a large solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area, this means that the particles around it in the solution has more area to collide with therefore should be more useful collisions; in theory this should increase the rate of reaction. In theory more concentration means more collisions, this is because if the solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant colliding between the water molecules in the solution used to dilute the solution, this makes collisions between the important particles more likely, if the particles are more likely to collide, then they are more likely to react, hence an increase in concentration causes an increase in reaction rate. ...read more.

Middle

The results to this test are below: Time in (sec) Volume of CO2 produced from different volumes of HCl. 10ml 20ml 30ml 0 0 0 0 20 8 12 14 40 15 18 20 60 20 22 27 80 27 29 33 100 34 36 40 120 40 44 47 140 50 52 55 160 54 56 62 180 59 60 70 200 66 67 79 220 74 75 82 240 77 85 88 260 80 90 95 280 82 98 100 300 84 100 N/A From this I can conclude that I will use 20ml of HCl as this also stopped at 300 seconds and this was ideal as it would have the same values on a graph. Preliminary 3 - What concentration range is most suitable. In this test I used 1.5 grams of medium sized chips and 20 ml of HCl. However I changed the concentration between 1.0 M, 0.5 M, and 0.2 M. For this prelim I had to make and use a dilution table, this table would show me what volume of HCl and distilled water I would need to produce the correct concentration of HCl, this is below: Dilution Table Concentration of HCl (M) Volume of HCl (ml) Volume of distilled water (ml) 1 20 0 0.9 18 2 0.8 16 4 0.7 14 6 0.6 12 8 0.5 10 10 0.4 8 12 0.3 6 14 0.2 4 16 0.1 2 18 The results to this test are below: Time in (sec) Volume of CO2 (ml) 1.0M 0.5M 0.2M 0 0 0 0 20 12 5 3 40 18 8 5 60 22 11 7 80 29 15 10 100 36 20 12 120 44 25 14 140 52 29 16 160 56 33 17 180 60 37 19 200 67 41 21 220 75 44 22 240 85 47 24 260 90 50 25 280 98 52 27 300 100 54 30 From this I can conclude that I will use a range from 0.2 M ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe that my results were very accurate as I took every precaution necessary to allow for the most accurate results possible. All my results clearly fit the trend I described in my conclusion of the graphs, and none presented any anomalous results. While doing one of the 0.6M experiments, the gas syringe tube fell out and we put it back in straight away however a lot of gas had already been lost and the results didn't follow the trend, so we decided it was best to redo this experiment instead of going with the results we already had. I believe that all my results fit the trend because I was so accurate when carrying out my experiments. I believe that the difference between the repeat experiments are very important as they represent how reliable your results are based on how big the error-bars are, I feel the distance of difference between my repeat experiments is small enough on the whole to show that my results are sufficiently reliable. How could I improve? Problem Improvement CO2 escapes at start while replacing the bung. Redesign the practical use another syringe to inject HCl. Wrong dilutions Use burette/pipette instead of measuring cylinder as is more accurate. Wrong surface area Use a sieve to get only medium sized chips. Not enough data Repeat with 0.1M, 0.3M ... HCl or with other acids such as; H2SO4, HNO3. Conclusion From this experiment I found out that the increase in concentration of HCl the faster the rate the reaction happens, also I have found out that there are other things such as; temperature, catalyst, and surface area all also affect the rate of reaction. My particles collision theory agrees with my data I have collected, this is because the theory suggests that the increase in concentration of HCl will increase the rate of reaction and this is what my research shows. The trends on my graphs show that as the concentration of HCl increase, the rate at which the reaction happens is quicker. ?? ?? ?? ?? Jonathan Stockdale Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

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This piece of coursework is fairly well written but lacks detail. It covers the majority of the factors necessary to access the higher marks. However all need to be discussed in more depth with direct reference to the scientific theory that supports each. Improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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