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What factors affect the rate pf reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE chemistry coursework What factors affect the rate pf reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid? Planning In my investigation I am going to investigate what factors affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Factors that affect the rate of reaction are: - Temperature - Concentration - Catalyst - Size of particles I cannot investigate catalysts for my investigation as there is no known catalyst for sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. I cannot also investigate the size of the particles as the reactants are both liquids. However I can change the concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate to see if this affects the rate of reaction. It is too difficult to change the temperature because this would require keeping the liquid at the same temperature constantly and any other experiments I do will have to be at the same temperature to keep things a fair test. I will change the concentration of sodium thiosulphate mixed with water to see if this affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid. There are three ways to measure the rate of reaction: - Precipitation; this is when the reaction produces a precipitate which makes the solution cloudy. Observe a marker through the solution and measure how long it takes for it to disappear. - Change in mass; any reaction that produces gases can be put on a mass balance and as the gas is released the disappearing mass is easily measured. - Volume of gas released; this involves using a gas syringe to measure the volume to gas released in a reaction. For my experiment I am going to use the precipitation method to measure the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. This is because I am going to measure the time of the reaction between the two reactants and this is the most suitable method. Background in formation The reaction rate is the speed at which a reaction occurs; usually measured as the change in concentration of either reactants or products over time. ...read more.

Middle

Time taken for marker to disappear (minutes) 30 20 50 3:28 20 30 50 3:07 10 40 50 2:41 Results of experiment when I changed the concentration of sodium thiosulphate in solution: Volume of Water in solution (ml) Volume of Sodium thiosulphate in solution (ml) Volume of Hydrochloric acid in solution (ml) Time taken for marker to disappear (minutes) 30 20 50 11:04 20 30 50 6:58 10 40 50 4:11 The results from preliminary experiment one tells me that sodium thiosulphate affects the rate of reaction greatly so for my practical experiment I will be changing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate in the solution. Experiment two results: For experiment two I am going to decide which concentration of sodium thiosulphate I am going to start with. The results are as follows: Volume of Water in solution (ml) Volume of Sodium thiosulphate in solution (ml) Volume of Hydrochloric acid in solution (ml) Time taken for marker to disappear (minutes) 30 20 50 11:19 20 30 50 7:14 10 40 50 4:27 0 50 50 3:30 From the results I can see that I need to start my practical experiment with a concentration higher than 20ml of sodium thiosulphate because the reaction was very slow and quite time consuming. Experiment three results: For experiment three I am going to decide what concentration intervals I should use for my practical experiment because if the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is too weak then it would be too time consuming because the time I have for my practical experiment is limited. The results are as follows: Volume of Water in solution (ml) Volume of Sodium thiosulphate in solution (ml) Volume of Hydrochloric acid in solution (ml) Time taken for marker to disappear (minutes) 25 25 50 8:33 20 30 50 7:16 15 35 50 5:51 10 40 50 4:21 5 45 50 3:59 0 50 50 3:21 I am quite happy with the results from preliminary experiment number three as there are no anomalies within my results because ...read more.

Conclusion

I could see how long it takes for the reading on the light receiver to go down to a certain number. This would ensure a fair test and rule out chances of human error because this machine is designed to measure light and be accurate. This would also make my results more reliable. The piece of apparatus I would use would be a light gate because this is especially designed to sense light. My results are quite reliable because I have taken all the precautions to make it a fair test and my results are very accurate as the results were all within 5% of each other which shows consistence and it also matches my prediction very well. However the results for the 0.01, 0.02 and 0.015 molar concentration of sodium thiosulphate were predicted using my line of best fit on my graph but I think the line of best fit is reliable because my results were very good and show very strong positive correlation. I also repeated each of my experiments three times to make the results as accurate as possible. My only anomaly was the 0.045M concentration of sodium thiosulphate, the rate of reaction was too fast compared to my line of best fit. I think this is due to human error as it is hard to tell when the cross disappears. All my practical experiments were carried out under the same circumstances and all at room temperature so the change in the rate of reaction cannot be due to temperature. In order to extend my experiment I could use 12 different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate instead of the 6 I used for a more accurate result. The graph could also be dawn on the computer using Excel so the correlation could be calculated to see how good the correlation is. In conclusion my prediction was right; the rate of reaction doubles between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate when the concentration of sodium thiosulphate doubles. This is because there are double the numbers of reactant particles of sodium thiosulphate so this increases the chances of a successful collision. ...read more.

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