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What factors effect the rate of reaction at which Alka-Seltzer tablets react with water.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

WHAT FACTORS EFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION AT WHICH ALKA-SELTZER TABLETS REACT WITH WATER SKILL P - PLANNING INPUT VARIABLES * Surface area of Alka-Seltzer tablet - this variable I will keep constant during the experiment. To ensure that the experiment is fair. I will do this by making sure that when I investigate each temperature, I will keep the surface area of the Alka - Seltzer tablets the same. * Volume of tap water used - this variable I will keep constant during the experiment. To ensure that the experiment is fair. I will do this by making sure that when I investigate each temperature, I will keep the amount of tap water used the same. * Temperature of the tap water - this is the variable I have chosen to investigate. Reactions can be made to go faster or slower by changing the temperature of the reactants. I will measure the temperature of the tap water by using a thermometer. * Number of Alka-Seltzer tablets used - this variable I will keep constant during the experiment. To ensure that the experiment is fair. I will do this by making sure that when I investigate each temperature, I will keep the number of Alka - Seltzer tablets the same. OUTPUT VARIABLES There are three main output variables that will change as a result of my input variable (temperature). The first one is time. This will change, because as the temperature increases, the rate of reaction will speed up making the time less. The second output variable that is changed, as a result of my input variable is the amount of bubbles produced. This will change, because as the temperature increases, the rate of reaction will speed up causing more bubbles more quickly. The last output variable that will change, as a result of my input variable is the amount of heat produced. ...read more.

Middle

Firstly because I am using a 250ml beaker, the height of the water has to high enough for the tablet to react properly, therefore 50ml or 20ml is not a sufficient volume. Secondly if I chose 150ml then the reaction may take place too quickly, therefore the results I get may not be very accurate. * In the 400ml beaker I am going to use 150ml so that it is enough to cover the 250 ml beaker that is going to be placed in the 400ml beaker. * A splint will then be taken, which will be used to light the Bunsen Burner (which will be on a safety flame). The Bunsen Burner will be used to heat up the water bath. * A thermometer will then be taken and placed into the 250ml beaker. This is done so that the temperature can be measured and later recorded. * A timer is then obtained so that the time for the Alka - Seltzer tablet to dissolve can be recorded. * The Bunsen Burner will then be turned onto a roaring flame to heat the water bath. * The water bath will then be taken and placed on top of the gauze. This is done to heat the water bath. * Once the temperature reaches 20�C, one Alka - Seltzer tablet will be dropped into the 250ml beaker, (just above the water line) and the timer is started. It will be dropped into the beaker for each experiment just above the water line, so that it is a fair experiment. This will be the first temperature that will be investigated. * The beaker will then be taken off the gauze using a tong, (so that I do not burn my hands) but it will remain in the water bath. This is so that it maintains its temperature. * The timer will then be stopped when the Alka - Seltzer tablet has completely dissolved and the time will be recorded and so will the temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

stopped it rising or falling). Although I tried my best to make the experiment perfect there were some unavoidable inaccuracies with the experiment. Firstly, when testing lower temperatures, the temperature of the water bath, which was much higher than the actual temperature being tested, caused a rapid increase in the temperature, or if it were lower it would cause it to decrease rapidly, especially when taken off the Bunsen. These gave us results for inaccurate temperatures to which were we testing. To overcome this problem, a thermostatic water bath would need to have been used, since it can be set to a certain temperature, and it will stop when it reaches there. Also it would mean that the solution inside it would reach the exact temperature or close to it., and not increase or decrease once the water inside it has reached equilibration. Secondly, it was impossible to say when exactly the Alka-Seltzer tablets had completely dissolved and consistently decide this for every result obtained. This was a huge flaw in the experiment and affected the results in a big way. To overcome this problem a special piece of apparatus would be needed to decide exactly when they had dissolved each time and give us the same measure of consistency each time. To improve the quality of the results, the same piece of apparatus would have needed to be used throughout the whole experiment, and not changed for repeat results. To extend my inquiry and provide additional evidence for this experiment, I think that I could have investigated up to higher temperatures and see how the link would break down, and how the results would fit in with the trend of results. Also, it would have helped me to see how the decomposing of the dissolved substances affected the results. To improve the experiment and make it fair, distilled water should have been used instead of tap water because it is purer than tap water and does not contain impurities. ...read more.

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